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DOG BREEDS (K-Z)

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Keeshond dog breed

Keeshond

 KEY FACTS

The Keeshond is a compact little animal with a strong resemblance to its ancestor, the Samoyed. Its eyes are medium sized and dark in colour. The ears are erect, triangular in shape and set high on the head. The tail is medium in length and carried over the back. The muzzle is medium in length and well-proportioned to the skull. The feet are catlike, compact and well rounded. The dog has both a long, straight, harsh outer coat and a thick, downy undercoat. The coat stands away from the body.

Lifespan:  12 – 15 years

Height: 44- 48 cm (17 -19 inches)

Weight: 25 – 30 kg (55 -65 pounds)

Size: Small / Medium

Energy: High

Colours: shades of grey with black tips// cream or pale grey

Group: Utility Group

Will be okay in an apartment, although they should at least have a good-size garden. Keesies prefer cool climates; they cannot withstand the heat well due to their thick coats.

An excellent children’s companion, active, intelligent, very keen and outgoing, Keesies are full of personality. They can be trained to perform. Affectionate and friendly, the Keeshond loves everyone and needs to be part of the family activities. This breed is a real character that is quick to learn if its owners are consistent. It should be trained using gentle, but firm, calm leadership. It is generally good with other pets.

Socialize well to avoid them from becoming reserved or timid. The Keeshond likes to bark and are good watchdogs because of their notable gift for warning of danger. Teach them enough is enough, to stop barking after their first initial warning bark.

Beware of overfeeding, as the Keeshond will gain weight easily. Be sure to take them for a daily pack walk to drain both mental and physical energy, to avoid over-excitability, such as spinning in circles and other behaviour issues. A Keeshond that spins in circles has excess energy he needs to burn, both physical and mental.

The Keeshond has an arctic origin. In the eighteenth century the Keeshond was known as “a dog of the people.”

In its veins runs the blood of the Samoyed, Chow Chow, Finnish Spitz, Norwegian Elkhound, and Pomeranian.

At the beginning of the French Revolution, it became the symbol of the Dutch Patriot political party, led by the patriot Kees de Gyselaer. Gyselaer owned a dog named Kees, which gave the breed its name. The breed then suffered a long period of neglect. They were first introduced into the UK by Mrs. Wingfield-Digby and did not become popular again until 1920. It became known as the Dutch Barge Dog, as it worked as a watch and guard dog on riverboats, barges and on farms.

Prone to hip dysplasia, skin problems and heart disease. In some Keeshonden that have unsound stifles, very demanding exercise will cause trick knee to develop.

Grooming is not as troublesome as you might expect, but daily brushing of the long coat with a stiff bristle brush is important. Brush with the grain first, then lift the hair with a comb, against the grain, and lay it back in place. Bathe or dry shampoo only when necessary. The dense undercoat is shed heavily twice a year in spring and Autumn.

This breed needs to be taken on a daily walk. In addition, they will also enjoy good run in a safe, open field each day. This breed is fairly active indoors. When a Keeshond spins in circles it is a sign he needs more stimulating exercise.

Always be your dog’s pack leader, remaining firm, confident and consistent. Give the dog rules he must follow and limits to what he is and is not allowed to do. Dogs crave, and instinctually need, this type of order in their lives.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
King Charles Spaniel Dogs

King Charles Spaniel

 KEY FACTS

The King Charles Spaniel is a small, square-shaped spaniel. The round head is large in proportion to the dog. The muzzle is very short, with a pushed back nose and extra skin under the eyes. The stop is deep and well-defined. The black nose is large with wide nostrils. The square jaw is large and deep with a slight underbite. The large eyes are dark brown or black with black eye rims. The ears are very long, hanging close to the head with heavy feathering. The ears should not have a lot of white on them. The tail is a natural screw. long coat is straight or slightly wavy with longer feathering on the ears, body, chest, front and back legs, and feet.

Lifespan:  10 – 12 years

Height: Around 25 cm (10 inches)

Weight: 4.1 – 5.4 kg (9 -12 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Low

Colours: Blenheim (red and white), Black and Tan, Ruby (red), Tricolour (red, black and white)

Group: Toy Group

They are good for apartment life, relatively inactive indoors, and will do okay without a yard if they are sufficiently exercised. King Charles Spaniels do not do well in temperature extremes.

The King Charles Spaniel is gentle, happy, playful, loving and sweet. The breed is intelligent and naturally well-behaved. These dogs will be quiet and laid-back if treated gently, but firmly.

They are friendly with other dogs. They will be good with all children if both owners and children are clear pack leaders toward the dog. It is an average barker, and is an okay watchdog. They are, however, considered exclusively a companion dog.

Some are known to be picky eaters. The King Charles Spaniel needs to be with people who can provide them with a determined, consistent, loving approach. Do not allow this sweet dog to develop Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours where the dog is led to believe they rule the home. This can cause a wide, varying degree of behavioural issues including, but not limited to, acting timid, demanding, wilfulness and possible obsessive barking. If you allow things to escalate even higher they may begin to guard objects and/or become untrustworthy with children and/or strange adults.

In the late 1600s Cavalier King Charles Spaniels were interbred with Pugs, which resulted in a smaller dog with flatter noses, upturned faces, rounded heads and protruding eyes. The consequence of this breeding is what we know today as the King Charles Spaniel (English Toy Spaniel). It was developed in the British Isles and was a favourite of British Royalty.

Some bloodlines are prone to respiratory problems, heart disease (MVD), slipped stifle, eye problems and ear infections.

Keep the eyes and ears clean to avoid infection. Like many other short-faced breeds, the King Charles Spaniel may wheeze and snore and have trouble breathing in hot weather if it overexerts itself, because of its very short muzzle.

They are average shedders. No trimming or stripping is needed. Regular brushing will do.

This breed needs a daily walk where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the human. Never in front, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the humans and not the dog.

Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display a wide array of behaviour problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe open area off-lead, such as a large, fenced-in garden. Don’t think that just because he is small he should be confined to a small space.

Always be your dog’s pack leader, remaining firm, confident and consistent. Give the dog rules he must follow and limits to what he is and is not allowed to do. Dogs crave, and instinctually need, this type of order in their lives.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DKCSC = Deutscher King Charles Spaniel Club–Germany
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club 
Labrador Retriever Dogs

Labrador Retriever

 KEY FACTS

There are two types of Labradors, the English Labrador and the American Labrador. The English bred Lab comes from English bred stock. Its general appearance is different than the American bred Lab. The English bred Labs are heavier, thicker and blockier. The American bred Lab comes from American bred stock and is tall and lanky. The double coat is smooth and does not have any waves. The head of the Labrador is broad with a moderate stop. The nose is thick, black on black and yellow dogs and brown on chocolate dogs. The nose colour often fades and is not considered a fault in the show ring. The teeth should meet in a scissors or level bite. The muzzle is fairly wide. The neck is proportionately wide and powerful. The body is slightly longer than tall. The short, hard coat is easy to care for and water-resistant. The medium-sized eyes are set well apart. Eye colour should be brown in yellow and black dogs and hazel or brown in chocolate dogs. Some Labs can also have green or greenish-yellow eyes. The eye rims are black in yellow and black dogs and brown in chocolate dogs. The ears are medium in size, hanging down and pendant in shape. The otter tail is thick at the base, gradually tapering towards the tip. It is completely covered with short hair, with no feathering. The feet are strong and compact with webbed feet which aid the dog in swimming.

Lifespan:  10 – 12 years

Height: 56 – 61 cm (22 – 24  inches)

Weight: 27 – 34 kg (60 -75 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: Yellow, Chocolate and Black

Group: Gun Group

Labrador Retrievers will do okay in an apartment if sufficiently exercised, but it’s not ideal. They are moderately active indoors and will do best with at least a large garden.

The Labrador Retriever is loyal, loving, affectionate and patient, making a great family dog. Highly intelligent, good-natured, very willing and eager to please, it is among the top choices for service dog work. Labs love to play, especially in water, never wanting to pass up the opportunity for a good swim.

These lively dogs have an excellent, reliable temperament and are friendly, superb with children and equable with other dogs.

They crave human leadership and need to feel as though they are part of the family.

They can become destructive if the humans are not 100% pack leader and/or if they do not receive enough mental and physical exercise, and left too much to their own devices. Show lines are generally heavier and easier going than field lines. Field lines tend to be very energetic and will easily become high strung without enough exercise. Labs bred from English lines (English Labs) are more calm and laid back than Labradors bred from American lines. English Labs mature quicker than the American type.

Once known as the “St John’s Dogs,” the Labrador Retriever is one of the most popular breeds. The Lab is native to Newfoundland, where it worked side by side with fishermen catching fish that came loose from the lines and trained to jump into the icy waters to help pull in the nets. Specimens were brought to England in the 1800s by English ships coming from Labrador. The breed was crossed with setters, spaniels and other types of retrievers to improve its instincts as a hunter. The Labrador is highly trainable and is not only popular as a family companion but also excels in: hunting, tracking, retrieving, watchdog, police work, narcotics detection, guide for the blind, service dog for the disabled, search and rescue, sledding, carting, agility, field trial competitor and competitive obedience.

Prone to hip and elbow dysplasia, PRA, mast cell tumours and eye disorders.

The smooth, short-haired, double coat is easy to groom. Comb and brush regularly with a firm, bristle brush, paying attention to the undercoat. Bathe or dry shampoo only when necessary. These dogs are average shedders.

Labrador Retrievers are energetic dogs, delighted to work and play hard. They need to be taken on a daily, brisk, long walk, jog or run alongside you when you bicycle. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. They will be in their glory if you give them a job to do. Gain weight easily, do not over feed.

Labs are easily trained. Some may be reserved with strangers unless very well socialized, preferably while they are still puppies. Adult Labs are very strong; train them while they are puppies to heel on the leash, and not to bolt out doorways and gateways before the humans. These dogs are watchdogs, not guard dogs, although some have been known to guard.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Lancashire Heeler Dogs

Lancashire Heeler

 KEY FACTS

The Lancashire Heeler is set low to the ground; legs are short in relation to the rest of the body. It has wide-set larger ears. The ears should be erect; drop ears are undesired by breeders. The head is always in proportion with the body. The bright eyes are set wide apart. The legs are short and sturdy and the paws turn out slightly. The hindquarters are very well muscled. The chest is long and deep and the abdomen is firm. The back is strong. The tail is set high and carried forward over the back. The coat is seasonably long or short. In the wintertime the coat is plush with a visible mane and in the summer it has a sleek, shiny coat.

Lifespan:  12 – 13 years

Height: 25 – 31 cm (10 – 12  inches)

Weight: 3 – 6 kg (6 -13 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: High

Colours: Liver & Tan, Black & Tan

Group: Pastoral Group

This breed is not a good dog for apartment living. It is very active indoors but will manage ok without a garden as long as it is properly exercised every day. This breed will do okay in colder climates as long as it has proper shelter.

The Lancashire Heeler is very alert and friendly with those he knows but may be wary of strangers.

An excellent ratter with rabbit catching potential, it has superior strength and broad instinctive abilities.

This breed makes a pleasant companion, and does best with older, considerate children.

The Lancashire may nip at people’s heels as it has a strong instinct to herd and must be taught not to do it to people.

When people no longer greatly relied on cattle dogs, the Lancashire Heeler declined in numbers greatly to the point of practical extinction. Today’s Lancashire Heelers are a re-creation of the original Lancashire Heelers. The re-creation has lines of the Welsh Corgi and the Manchester Terrier. Today’s Lancashire Heelers are almost identical to the Lancashire that existed a long time ago. Although the new Lancashire’s retain the excellent ability to herd, they are now rarely used for cattle herding.

The three most common serious conditions that can affect Heelers are Collie eye anomaly, Primary lens luxation and Persistent pupillary membranes. As well as these eye conditions, dogs of this breed may suffer from Patella luxation.

This breed is easy to groom. Comb and brush with a firm bristle brush, and bathe only when necessary. The coat is seasonably long or short. In the wintertime the coat is plush with a visible mane and in the summer it has a sleek, shiny coat.

The Lancashire Heeler has a lot of energy and it must be kept busy. It needs to be taken on a daily, brisk, long walk. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human.

This breed may be difficult to obedience train, but it is trainable. While it has great herding instincts and will make a wonderful herder of cattle, goats and horses, it is rarely used as such. Make sure you are this dog’s firm, confident, consistent pack leader to avoid Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behavioural problems. Always remember, dogs are canines, not humans. Be sure to meet their natural instincts as animals.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
Löwchen Dog Breed

Löwchen

 KEY FACTS

The Löwchen, also called the Little Lion, is a small dog whose coat is often cut to resemble the look of a lion. The head is short with a broad skull. The muzzle is the same length or slightly shorter than the back skull and is relatively broad. The nose is dark, usually black. The eyes are round, dark and set well into the skull. The ears are pendant in shape and moderate in length with feathering. The short body is well proportioned. The tail is set high and of medium length. The coat is long and wavy, but not curly. When clipped to look like a lion, the hindquarters, the section of the tail closest to the body and part of the front legs are closely clipped. When the coat is not clipped, it is long, rather dense and moderately soft in texture.

Lifespan:  12 – 14 years

Height: 25 – 33 cm (10 – 13  inches)

Weight: 4 – 8 kg (9 -18 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: white, black and lemon

Group: Toy Group

The Löwchen is good for apartment life. It is very active indoors and will do okay without a garden as long as it is exercised daily.

The Löwchen is a cheerful, lively, affectionate dog. Sociable and intelligent, it is eager to learn. These dogs are fearless, but gentle and sensitive. Playful, they are good with children and usually will do okay with other dogs as well as non-canine pets. Its lion-cut coat makes it look fragile and rather undignified, although this is definitely not the case. The Löwchen is a robust, even tough, dog that can be strong-willed and arrogant if the owner does not display proper leadership toward the dog. Without this leadership, males, in particular, are quite willing to challenge other large household dogs for leadership. A lot of times they will usually be “top dog” even though they are not the biggest dog in the house. If necessary it will defend its house with intense barking. They are not hyperactive, but some may bark or dig a lot.

The Löwchen originated in Europe around 400 years ago; most likely in Germany as the name Löwchen means “little lion” in German. It was groomed to look like a little lion and its exposed skin was often used as a foot warmer for the ladies. The breed was popular in Germany, Spain, France and Italy in the 1500s and continued throughout the 1800s. Like a lot of breeds, the numbers dwindled after the two world wars. It was named the “rarest breed” in the Guinness Book of World records in the early 1960s. Numbers have risen enough to take that title away from it, however it is still considered rare.

This is a generally healthy breed, although some lines are prone to patellar luxation.

To prevent tangles from forming, the coat should be combed and brushed regularly. The Löwchen is usually clipped in the hindquarters, the section of the tail closest to the body, and front leg areas are close-clipped, regardless of whether they are shown or not, giving them the name “Little Lion Dog,” although some owners prefer to give it a puppy clip. This breed sheds little to no hair. Dead hair should be brushed out. This breed is good for allergy sufferers.

The Löwchen needs a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of its exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavioural problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large, enclosed garden.

Löwchen usually learn quickly and present little difficulty in their training.

Make sure you are this dog’s firm, confident, consistent pack leader to avoid Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behavioural problems.

Always remember, dogs are canines, not humans. Be sure to meet their natural instincts as animals.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
Maltese Dog Breed

Maltese

 KEY FACTS

The Maltese is a small, hardy dog with silky hair. The body is compact, fine-boned, but sturdy and slightly longer than it is tall with a level topline. The chest is deep. The skull is slightly rounded on the top with a moderate stop. The medium length muzzle tapers, but not to a point. The pendant, low-set ears are set close to the head and heavily feathered. The black eyes are large, round and set moderately apart with dark rims. The nose is black with open nostrils. The dog has a silky, single layer coat that is white or light ivory. When kept long and groomed like a show dog, it hangs flat, long over the sides of the body almost to the ground about 22 cm (8½ inches), hanging on each side of a centre part line and is not wavy, curly or kinky. A lot of owners choose to cut the coat into a short, easy-care puppy cut.

Lifespan:  15 – 18 years

Height: 21 – 25 cm (8 – 10  inches)

Weight: 3 – 4 kg (6.5 – 9 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: white, white with tan, with lemon, with cream and with pale orange

Group: Toy Group

The Maltese is good for apartment life. It is very active indoors and will do okay without a garden as long as it is exercised daily.

The Maltese is spirited, lively and playful. Gentle, loving, trusting and devoted to its master.

Highly intelligent. Good at learning tricks. Bold and quick to sound the alarm in case of suspicious noises. It is a classic companion dog: graceful and lovable.

It does well with other non-canine animals and other dogs.

Maltese love to play outdoors. Some like to jump in puddles. May be difficult to housebreak.

If you feed them table scraps, they can become picky eaters.

Do not allow these dogs to develop Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours where the dog believes he is pack leader to humans. This causes a varying degree of behavioural problems. If the dog believes he is boss, he can be snappish with children and even adults. Do not over-pamper or overprotect these little dogs, for they will become unstable, and some may become jealous of visitors.

Maltese that are allowed to take over the house, being boss of the humans, can also develop separation anxiety, guarding and obsessive barking. These are not Maltese traits, but rather behaviours brought on by the way the dog is treated by the people around it. These behaviours will go away when the dog is surrounded by stable pack leaders.

The Maltese was developed in Italy. It is said to have miniature spaniel and Poodle blood.

The Maltese was first recognized as a breed in Malta, where it received its name. It was once known as “Ye ancient dogge of Malta.” The breed was owned by royalty all over the world. Women carried them around in their sleeves and slept with them in their beds. They were first brought to England by Crusaders returning home from the Mediterranean.

Prone to sunburn along the hair parting, skin, eye issues, respiratory, and slipped stifle. Some may be difficult to feed with weak, upset digestion.

They may get the chills, and they experience discomfort in hot weather. Maltese should be kept out of damp areas.

Also prone to teeth problems. Feeding dry dog biscuits in addition to their normal food can help the teeth stay clean and healthy.

Daily combing and brushing of the long coat is important but be gentle, as the coat is very soft. Clean the eyes daily to prevent staining, and clean the beard after meals for the same reason. Bathe or dry shampoo regularly, making sure the animal is thoroughly dry and warm afterward. Clean the ears, and pull out hair growing inside the ear canal. The eyes should be checked regularly and cleaned if necessary. The hair on the top of the head is often tied up in a topknot to keep it away from the eyes. Some pet owners opt to clip the hair short for easier and less time-consuming grooming. The Maltese sheds little to no hair and is good for allergy sufferers.

Maltese need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavioural problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large, enclosed garden. They remain playful well into old age. They are very active indoors.

The Maltese is one of the easiest toy breeds to train. With praise and treats, these dogs pick up on commands very easily. They are intelligent and have a natural desire to please.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Miniature Pinscher Dog breed

Miniature Pinscher

 KEY FACTS

The Miniature Pinscher is a small, compact, square dog. The head is in proportion to the body. The skull appears flat, tapering forward toward the muzzle. The muzzle is strong and in proportion to the head. The teeth should meet in a scissor bite. The topline is level or slightly sloping toward the rear. The slightly oval eyes are dark. The ears are set high and either cropped or left natural. The front legs are straight. Dewclaws are usually removed. The small feet are cat-like in shape. The short, smooth, hard coat lies close to the body.

Lifespan:  15 + years

Height: 25 – 30 cm (10 – 12  inches)

Weight: 4 – 5 kg (8 – 10 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: black with rust markings, chocolate with tan, red and stag red (red with black hairs)

Group: Toy Group

The Miniature Pinscher is good for apartment life. It will be calm indoors if it receives enough exercise. It will do okay without a garden.

The Miniature Pinscher is a hardy little fellow who is proud and courageous. He is loyal to his master, spirited and alert with high energy. Intelligent, lively and brave.

Generally good with other pets and children so long as the humans provide proper leadership toward the dog. Its behaviour depends entirely upon how you treat the dog. Do not let this sweet little dog fall into the Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours where he believes he is pack leader to humans. That is when problems start to arise. The dog will become demanding, headstrong and will begin to bark more than you wish. If you allow this, the dog may become a tyrant. If you are not this dog’s pack leader, it will become protective and may become very aggressive with other dogs. It can also become rather suspicious towards strangers.

Do not overfeed this breed.

The Miniature Pinscher is a German breed. The Miniature Pinscher was developed from the Dachshund, Italian Greyhound, and the shorthaired German Pinscher. The breed looks like a mini Doberman, most likely because both the Miniature Pinscher and the Doberman both were developed from the German Pinscher. The breed was used as a barnyard ratter, controlling the rodent population in the stables.

Generally healthy.

The Miniature Pinscher’s smooth, shorthaired, hard coat is easy to groom. Comb and brush with a firm bristle brush, and shampoo only when necessary. You can remove loose hair by wiping the coat with a warm, damp cloth. This breed is an average shedder.

Clean and check the ears frequently for wax or mites or infection and pull out hairs growing inside the ear canal. The teeth need regular scaling.

Min Pins need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavioural problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large field. Make sure any garden in which they can run loose has a fence high enough to prevent their determined efforts to escape and explore. enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large, enclosed garden. They remain playful well into old age. They are very active indoors.

The Miniature Pinscher can learn extremely well and wants very much to do so. It is certainly beneficial for its socialization to take the dog to puppy courses where it can meet other dogs and people. You will be amazed at how fast the Miniature Pinscher understands and obeys you. Pay particular attention when housebreaking this little Pinscher, since a little puddle from such a small dog can easily be overlooked; the dog may get the idea that you are happy to accept it fulfilling its natural needs indoors. Beware, this little dog will chew small objects and may choke on them.

The Miniature Pinscher is often called the “King Of The Toys” as their talents are competitive obedience, watchdog and agility.

A balanced Min Pin will not have the behaviour problems listed above. If it truly has rules, boundaries, limitations, a true pack leader and a daily pack walk, it will be a wonderful family companion.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Miniature Poodle

Miniature Poodle

 KEY FACTS

When groomed to show dog standards the Miniature Poodle’s body is meant to give off a square appearance. It is approximately the same length as the height at the withers. The skull is moderately rounded with a slight but definite stop. It has a long, straight muzzle. The dark, oval-shaped eyes are set somewhat far apart and are black or brown. The ears hang close to the head and are long and flat. Both the front and back legs are in proportion with the size of the dog. The topline is level. The tail is set and carried high. The oval-shaped feet are rather small and the toes are arched. The coat is either curly or corded.

Lifespan:  12 – 15 years

Height: 28 – 38 cm (11 – 15  inches)

Weight: 7 – 8 kg (15 – 17 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: All, including black, blue, silver, grey, cream, apricot, red, white or brown

Group: Utility Group

The Miniature Poodle is good for apartment life. It will be calm indoors if it receives enough exercise. It will do okay without a garden.

The Miniature Poodle is an intelligent, joyful companion dog. It can be trained to a high degree and is very willing and happy to please its handler. Comical and clever, it is often used as a circus dog. The more intelligent a dog is, the more it needs its mind occupied. This breed cannot live outside in a kennel. It needs to be part of the family. It can be high-strung if not given the proper type and amount of exercise. Do not allow this dog to develop Small Dog Syndrome, where the dog is led to believe it is alpha over humans. It can cause the dog to become sensitive and nervous, and not very trustworthy with children and possibly strangers, along with many other behavioural issues. Socialize your dog well. This is a very good watchdog for its size, seldom becoming aggressive. Dogs may start to bark a lot without proper human to canine communication, rules to follow and limits to what they are allowed to do. Poodles are friendly with other dogs and non-canine pets. Be sure you are this dog’s firm pack leader to avoid any unwanted behavioural problems.

The Poodle has been known throughout Western Europe for at least 400 years and is depicted in 15th century paintings and in bas-reliefs from the 1st century.

The subject is controversial of where the dog was officially developed and no one really knows the breed’s true country of origin. France has taken a claim on the origin, others say Germany, where they say it was used as a water retrieval dog. Other claims have been Denmark, or the ancient Piedmont.

What is certain is that the dog was a descendant of the now extinct French Water Dog, the Barbet and possibly the Hungarian Water Hound. The name “Poodle” most likely came out of the German word “Pudel,” which means “one who plays in water.” The “Poodle clip” was designed by hunters to help the dogs swim more efficiently. They would leave air on the leg joints to protect them from extreme cold and sharp reeds.

Hunters in Germany and France used the Poodle as a gundog and as a retriever of waterfowl and to sniff out truffles lying underground in the woods. The French started using the breed as a circus performer because of the dog’s high intelligence and trainability. The breed became very popular in France, which led to the common name “French Poodle,” but the French people actually called the breed the “Caniche,” meaning “duck dog.”

The Toy and Miniature Poodle varieties were bred down from larger dogs, today known as Standard Poodles. In the 18th century, smaller Poodles became popular with royal people. The three official sizes are the Toy, Miniature and Standard Poodle. They are considered one breed and are judged by the same written standard but with different size requirements. Breeders are also breeding an in-between size called a Klein Poodle (Moyen Poodle) and a smaller Teacup Poodle. Some of the Poodle’s talents include: retrieving, agility, watchdog, competitive obedience and performing tricks.

Prone to cataracts, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) which may cause blindness, IMHA (Immune Mediated Haemolytic Anaemia), heart disease, diabetes, epilepsy, runny eyes, ear infections and skin allergies.

Brown Poodles tend to become prematurely grey.

Extensive grooming is needed if the dog is to be shown. Poodles must be bathed regularly and clipped every six to eight weeks. Since the coat does not shed it needs to be clipped. There are several different types of Poodle clips. The most common for pet owners is an easy-care clip called a “pet clip,” “puppy clip” or “lamb clip,” where the coat is cut short all over the body. Popular show clips are the English saddle and the Continental clip where the rear half of the body is shaved, bracelets are left around the ankles, and pom-poms are left on the tails and hips. Other clip styles are the modified continental clip, town and country clip, kennel or utility clip, summer clip, and the Miami of bikini clip. Poodles shed little to no hair and are good for allergy sufferers.

Clean and check the ears frequently for wax or mites or infection and pull out hairs growing inside the ear canal. The teeth need regular scaling.

Miniature Poodles need a daily walk. While out on the walk make sure the dog heels beside or behind the person holding the lead, never in front, as instinct tells a dog the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. As with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavioural problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large field. They adore water and love sessions of play. They are a very versatile breed with a hunting and retrieving beginning, although they excel in any performance event you offer them, including agility, obedience, rally and conformation showing, and often one will leave one ring and go directly to another to compete again. Since they love water they are great dock diving dogs and love water retrieving.

These Miniature Poodles are both elegant and athletic, moving with a light, springy gait. … But whatever the build, a good Miniature Poodle is one of the smartest and most trainable of all breeds. This is a “thinking” dog who pays rapt attention to you, learns quickly, and responds well to training.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Newfoundland Dog breed

Newfoundland

 KEY FACTS

The Newfoundland is a strong, giant of a dog. The head is broad and heavy with a slightly arched crown. The neck and back are strong. The wide muzzle is about as broad as it is deep, and rather short. The stop is moderate. The nose is generally black except on bronze-coloured dogs, which have brown noses. The teeth meet in a level or scissors bite. The deep-set, dark brown eyes are relatively small and spaced wide apart. The triangular shaped ears have rounded tips and are relatively small. The legs are well muscled, straight and parallel. The cat-like feet are webbed. The tail is strong and broad at the base, hanging down. The double coat is flat and water-resistant. The oily outer coat is coarse and moderately long, either straight or wavy. The undercoat is oily, dense and soft. Dogs that live indoors tend to lose their undercoats. In the UK and US the Landseer is considered the same breed as the Newfoundland, however in some European countries the Landseer is a totally different breed than the Newfoundland. Landseers in Europe have longer legs than Newfies; Landseers are not so massive, they are more sporty dogs. In shows, they compete separately.

Lifespan:  9 – 15 years

Height: 69 – 74 cm (27 – 29  inches)

Weight: 59 – 68 kg (130 – 150 pounds)

Size: Giant

Energy: Medium

Colours: black, black with blue highlights, black with white markings, brown, grey, and white with black markings known as a Landseer.

Group: Working Group

Will do okay in an apartment if sufficiently exercised. They are relatively inactive indoors and a small garden is sufficient. Newfies prefer colder climates and do not do well in the heat. Make sure there is always cool water and a shaded place for them to lie.

The Newfoundland is a dog with an outstanding, sweet temperament, courageous, generous and intelligent. A calm, patient dog that is mild with guests and obedient with its master. They are very devoted, loyal and trustworthy. Its huge body tends to move rather slowly.

They rarely bark, but are protective and brave when they need to be. When an intruder is caught they are more likely to hold them at bay, either by trapping them in a corner or placing themselves in between the burglar and the family rather than an all-out attack. They are smart enough to know who is a threat to the pack and who is not.

Very sociable and gentle. Any dog, other animal, child, or visitor who has no evil intention will receive a friendly welcome.

The Newfoundland usually gets along with other dogs, but should be socialized well with them, giving a correction at any sign of aggressiveness to insure this behaviour.

Generally good with other animals. Patient, playful and loving with children.

Enjoys the outdoors, but also needs to be with their family. The Newfoundland tends to be very messy when drinking water and often drinks a lot. They do drool, especially after getting a drink, but generally are not one of the worst offenders compared to some other giant breeds.

They love to swim, and will lie in water if they get the chance. Adult Newfoundlands eat only about as much as a Labrador, but puppies eat more.

The Newfoundland may be a descendant of the Viking “bear dogs” or nomadic Indian dogs. Others believe the Newfoundland is a close relative of the Labrador. This theory is based on the similarities between the two breeds and the fact that the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador are very close to each other. It is possible that the Labrador, which is an excellent swimmer, was able to swim the Strait of Belle Isle or cross on foot when the water was frozen. Many believe the Newfoundland originated from crosses between Tibetan Mastiffs brought to Canada by British or European fisherman and local dogs early in the 1700s. In any case, the resulting breed found a niche aiding fisherman off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada.

Others say the Newfoundland dog is related to the Labrador, however not in the way stated above…. The breed was already in St John’s in Newfoundland 500-odd years ago when Cabot arrived, this much is known from written accounts of visitors just a few years after his landing. The Vikings, who were here 500 years before that or another group may have brought the animal to these shores. The Labrador dog is descended from a dog called the St. John’s Water Dog and selective pairing with the Newfoundland. In the early days of this breed, before they were called Labs they were known as “the lesser Newfoundland dog.” The name Labrador was given to them after they started to become popular for their fine attributes.

This gentle giant was used for hauling in nets, carrying boat lines to shore, retrieving anything which fell overboard and rescuing shipwrecked and drowning victims. The breed was also used to haul lumber, pull mail sheds, deliver milk and carry loads in packs. The Newfoundland was, and still is, an outstanding instinctive water rescue dog. Many owe their lives to members of the breed. In 1919 a gold medal was awarded to a Newfoundland that pulled to safety a lifeboat containing twenty shipwrecked people. It has been called the St. Bernard of the water. During World War II, Newfoundlands hauled supplies and ammunition for the armed forces in blizzard conditions in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Today, safer ships and improved communications have limited the dog’s processional activities but its appeal has not diminished due to the fact that it is considered a handsome, devoted, delightful companion. It is still very good at water trials, competitive obedience, weight pulling, carting, backpacking, and as a watchdog and guarding dog.

Prone to a hereditary heart disease called sub-aortic stenosis (SAS) and hip dysplasia.

Be cautious that the Newfoundland does not get fat.

Daily to weekly brushing of the thick, coarse, double coat with a hard brush is important. The undercoat is shed twice a year in the spring and fall and extra care is required at these times. (The heaviest shedding period comes in the spring). Avoid bathing unless absolutely necessary, as this strips away the coat’s natural oils. Instead, dry shampoo from time to time.

This gentle giant is quite content to laze around the house, but still needs to be taken on a daily walk. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. It will enjoy frequent opportunities to swim and frolic.

Newfies may be slightly difficult to train. Training must be conducted in a calm and balanced manner. In order to achieve a well balanced dog one must be calm, but firm, confident and consistent with the dog. Give the dog rules he must follow and stick to them, along with a daily pack walk where the dog must heel beside or behind you. No pulling ahead. Teach the dog to enter and exit door and gateways after the human. These dogs are very sensitive to the tone of your voice. Take this into account during training; one needs to be calm, but firm.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Norwich Terrier Dogs

Norwich Terrier

 KEY FACTS

The Norwich Terrier is a short, sturdy, strong, little dog. The head is slightly rounded and wide, with a good amount of space between the ears. The wedge-shaped muzzle is strong, with a well-defined stop. The small, oval shaped eyes are dark in colour. The medium sized ears stand erect. The legs are straight and the feet are round with black toenails. The medium sized tail is set high and level with the topline. The wiry, straight coat is about one and a half to two inches long. Coat colours include red, wheaten, tan, black and tan, or grizzle with or without dark points and occasionally with white markings.

Lifespan:  10 – 15 years

Height: 25 cm (10  inches)

Weight: 4.5 – 5.5 kg (10 – 12 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: red, wheaten, tan, black and tan, or grizzle with or without dark points and occasionally with white markings.

Group: Terrier Group

Will do okay in an apartment if sufficiently exercised. They are relatively inactive indoors and a small garden is sufficient.

Among the smallest of the working terriers, Norwich Terriers are active, courageous, affectionate, balanced and without any nervousness or quarrelsomeness. These little dogs love everyone and are good with children. Because of their ratting instincts they tend to love anything you toss for them to chase after, such as toys, balls, sticks or bones. If left outside for a long period of time with nothing to do, without providing long pack walk to drain their energy, they can become barkers and diggers. This breed is generally good with other pets such as cats and dogs, but should not be trusted with small animals such as hamsters, pet rats, mice or guinea pigs.

Developed in East Anglia, England, the Norfolk and Norwich Terriers used to be the same breed with two different ear types; both were referred to as the Norwich Terrier. The English were the first to separate them in 1964.

A slight difference is the Norfolks are angular in shape and the Norwich Terriers are more round. The dogs were used as barnyard ratters and to bolt foxes that had gone to ground during a fox hunt. Their small size allowed them to get in and out of fox dens easily. After the foxes were flushed from their dens hunters on horseback would resume the chase with their hounds.

Some lines are prone to back problems and genetic eye diseases, but are generally healthy.

The shaggy, medium-length, waterproof coat is relatively easy to care for, but daily combing and brushing is important. Little clipping is required. Take extra care when the dog is shedding. Bathe and dry shampoo only when necessary. This breed is a light shedder.

These little dogs were bred to work. They are energetic and thrive on an active life and need to be taken on a daily walk. They can jog for short distances. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. Teach them to enter and exit all door and gateways after the human.

The Norwich Terrier is easy to train and needs consistent rules to follow. Do not allow this little dog to develop Small Dog Syndrome, where the dog believes he is pack leader to humans. This can cause many varying degrees of behavioural problems including, but not limited to, separation anxiety, jealousy and guarding behaviours.

They can be difficult to housebreak.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club.
  • CET = Club Español de Terriers (Spanish Terrier Club)
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Old English Sheepdog

Old English Sheepdog

 KEY FACTS

The Old English Sheepdog is a strong, compact, square dog. The topline is lower at the shoulders, sloping higher toward the back end. The chest is deep and broad. The head is large with a well-defined stop. The nose is black. The teeth meet in a level or tight scissors bite. Eyes come in brown, blue or one of each colour. The medium sized ears are carried flat to the head. The front legs are straight and the hind legs are round and muscular. The small feet point straight ahead and are round with well-arched toes. The Old English Sheepdog is sometimes born tailless.  The shaggy, double coat is long and profuse with a good, hard, textured outer coat and a soft, waterproof undercoat.

Lifespan:  10 – 12 years

Height: 56 cm – 61 cm (22 – 24 inches)

Weight: 29 kg (65 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: Grey, grizzle, blue, blue grey, blue merle, grey with white markings or white with grey markings.

Group: Pastoral Group

The Old English Sheepdog will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. These dogs are fairly active indoors and will do best with at least a large garden.

The Old English Sheepdog is stable and happy-go-lucky. It is able to adjust oneself readily to different conditions, is loving and friendly. Loyal, protective and intelligent, it makes a fine family companion. Friendly and gentle, this breed loves and is good with children and is very much part of the family.

The bark of the Old English Sheepdog sounds like a cracked bell. This breed remains puppy-like for many years, and age tends to hit it suddenly.

There are a few theories about the origin of the Old English Sheepdog. One is that it is related to the Poodle and the Deerhound. Other theories are it is related to the Briard and the Bergamasco, or from Scotch Bearded Collies and the Russian Owtchar, a hairy Russian breed brought to Great Britain on ships from the Baltic.

The Old English Sheepdog was developed in the western counties of England by farmers who needed a quick, well-coordinated sheep herder and cattle driver to take their animals to market. The dogs became widely used in agricultural areas. Farmers began the practice of docking the tails in the 18th century as a way of identifying the dogs that were used for working so they could get a tax exemption. For this reason the dogs were given the nickname “Bobtail.”

Each spring, when the sheep were sheared, farmers would also shear the dogs’ coats to make warm clothing and blankets. The Old English Sheepdog has been used for reindeer herding because it tolerates cold weather so well.

It was first shown in Britain in 1873. Some of the Old English Sheepdog’s talents include: retrieving, herding and watchdog.

Prone to IMHA (Immune Mediated Haemolytic Anaemia), hip dysplasia and cataracts. Some herding dogs carry a MDR1 gene which makes them sensitive to certain drugs that are otherwise okay to give another dog, but if tested positive for this gene can kill them.

The coarse, longhaired coat needs constant care to keep it in top condition. Unless it is combed and brushed right through to the dense, waterproof undercoat at least three times per week, it will become matted and the dog may develop skin problems, making it prone to host parasites. Clip out any tangles carefully so as not to nick the skin. A grooming table will make the whole job easier.

If the dog is not being shown, the coat can be professionally machine-clipped every two months or so, about one inch all the way around. In former times these dogs were shorn along with sheep.

Trim around the eyes and rear-end with blunt-nosed scissors.

This breed sheds like a human—not a lot, but in small amounts.

These dogs were developed for hard work and love a good run. They need to be taken on a daily walk, jog or run. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human.

They have a strong herding instinct and may try to herd people by bumping, not nipping, and need to be taught not to herd humans. Meek or passive owners or those that do not make the rules of the home clear in a way the dog can understand will cause the dog to become strong-willed.  

This breed needs firm, but calm, confident and consistent leadership. The Old English Sheepdog is a very good worker and is able to follow commands, but will ignore the instruction if it thinks it is stronger minded than its human pack members.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Otterhound dogs

Otterhound

 KEY FACTS

The Otterhound is a large scent hound. The body is slightly rectangular in shape. The large head is fairly narrow. The muzzle is about the same length as the skull with a slight stop. The large nose is dark with wide nostrils. The teeth should meet in a scissors bite. The deep-set eyes have a colour that complements the coat of the dog: dogs with darker rims have darker eyes and those that have a liver or slate pigment have hazel eyes. The low-set, long ears reach at least to the top of the nose and are folded, hanging down loosely. The muscular neck has an abundant dewlap. The long tail is set high, thicker at the base and tapering to a point. The webbed feet are deep and thick, with arched toes. The Otterhound has a double coat that is 8-16 cm (3-6 inches) long. The oily outer coat is rough, course and dense with a broken appearance. The undercoat is water resistant and soft. The dog has a shaggy face and bushy eyebrows.

Lifespan:  10 – 12 years

Height: 60 cm – 65 cm (24 – 26 inches)

Weight: 30 – 52 kg (66 -115 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: hound colours including but not limited to grizzle or wheaten with black markings.

Group: Hound Group

The Otterhound is not recommended for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors if they have sufficient exercise. They do best with at least a large enclosed garden. They can sleep outdoors in temperate or cool climates if given a good shelter.

The Otterhound is fearless and animated. It is devoted to its family and good with children. Friendly, loving and happy with a lot of spirit, it makes a good companion. It is a friend to all other dogs, family pets, children and people in general, however due to its hunting instincts, it will chase non-canine animals. It can, however, get along with cats in the family. This breed is affectionate and intelligent.

The Otterhound is a low-key dog that can function as a quiet companion. They like to roam and use their noses and have a tendency to snore. Otterhounds have a harmonious, boisterous and powerful voice that carries for long distances. They don’t bark excessively. A great swimmer, they can swim for hours without resting, even in cold water. They will dive into the water seeking their prey.

The Otterhound’s exact origin is not known, but some believe it originated in France.

This rather old breed was developed by crossing the Bloodhound with rough-haired terriers, Harriers, and Griffons.

When fishermen realized that otter were preying on the fish supply, they used packs of Otterhounds to hunt the otter, hence where the dog got its name. The Otterhound has a sense of smell so acute that it can smell in the morning an otter that passed through the water the night before.

In the 20th century the otter population dropped and since the dogs were no longer in high demand their numbers dropped as well.

A group of breeders dedicated themselves to saving the breed. While the breed is still rare it is no longer endangered. It has a good sense of smell and is ideally suited to drag-hunting or searching.

Some lines are prone to hip dysplasia, thrombocytopenia, haemophilia and bloat. Do not overfeed for it will gain weight easily. A minor concern is elbow dysplasia.

To avoid matting, the Otterhound’s weather-resistant coat should be combed or brushed at least weekly. It may need its beard washed more frequently. The coat is supposed to look natural and therefore should not be clipped. This breed is an average shedder.

The Otterhound needs a lot of daily exercise in a safe area or on a lead, and if possible, frequent swimming. They need to be taken on a daily walk or jog. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. They have a tendency to forget everything in the chase after an interesting scent is discovered, so therefore they should only be allowed to run free off the lead where they can be controlled and kept safe. They should have an enclosed garden and will make excellent jogging companions.

Because the Otterhound was never traditionally kept as a pet, it is not among the most responsive of breeds. Training the Otterhound takes patience. If the Otterhound senses the owners are weaker minded than itself it will become quite wilful, acting independent with a mind of its own as it will believe it needs to run the home. The best results are achieved with a determined, consistent, loving hand. Use the classic “iron fist in a velvet glove” approach when training this dog.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Federation Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Papillon dog breed

Papillon

 KEY FACTS

Also called the Continental Toy Spaniel, the Papillon is a small, fine-boned dog. The small head is slightly rounded between the ears with a well-defined stop. The muzzle is somewhat short and thin, tapering to the nose. The dark, medium-sized, round eyes have black rims. The large ears can either be erect or dropped with rounded tips. Papillons with drop ears are called Phalene Papillons (Moth). The hair on the ears is long and fringed, giving it a butterfly-like look. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The long tail is set high, carried over the body and covered with long hair. The straight, long, fine, single coat has extra frill on the chest, ears, back of the legs and the tail.

Lifespan:  Up to 16 years

Height: 20 cm – 28 cm (8 – 11 inches)

Weight: 4 – 5 kg (8 – 10 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: white with patches of any colour except for liver. A mask of a colour other than white covers both ears and eyes from back to front.

Group: Toy Group

Although they can be good city dogs, they are sometimes not good apartment dogs, because the dog has a strong instinct to protect their property, and many will bark excessively at nearby noises, not making the distinction between casual noises and those worthy of real alarm.

The Papillon is sometimes called the butterfly dog, because the ears look like butterfly wings. It is a friendly, intelligent dog that is tougher than it looks, and loves outdoor exercise. It is a playful, lively, amusing, animated and charming little dog. Affectionate, gentle, patient, and proud, it loves to cuddle and enjoys a good romp outdoors.

They are steady, obedient and are not yappers. Good with cats when they are socialized with them.

The Papillon is one of the oldest breeds of dog, with a recorded history in Europe going back nearly 700 years. The breed originally only had dropped ears and was called the “epagneul nain” or “dwarf spaniel.”

Much of the breed’s development is known because of its depiction in paintings. This tiny breed is recognizable in 13th through 15th century Italian paintings in the Renaissance period. They were often painted on the laps of French and Spanish noblewomen.

The dog was later known as the Continental Toy Spaniel. They were sometimes referred to as simply a Toy Spaniel. Over time, an erect-eared type, fringed as to resemble the ears of a butterfly, developed.

Papillon means “butterfly” in French. Papillon for the erect-eared dogs and Phalene for the drop-eared dogs. Papillons (erect-eared) and Phalenes (drop-eared) can be born in the same litter and are shown together as one breed. The FCI strictly prohibits mix mating because of problems with the position of the ears. One FCI breeder states, “When a Papillon and Phalene are mixed, most of the time incorrect ears on both varieties are the result, i.e. one ear erected one dropped or both bended on top or a different combination of the mentioned problems. The correct position of Phalene ears is to lie close to the side of the head showing no gap, but when you mix the two the ears they do show a gap which is called “open ears”. If there are the opposite genes in either variety incorrect ears will always show up in the litters.”

Because of the tail’s long fringing and the way it is carried curled over the back the Papillon was once called a “Squirrel Spaniel.” Some of its talents include: watchdog, agility, competitive obedience, and performing tricks.

Sometimes prone to problems with the kneecaps (patella) in the hind legs, this can sometimes be corrected by surgery. Also fontanel (an opening at the top of the skull similar to a baby human’s “soft spot”). It sometimes corrects itself but if it does not, the dog needs to be protected. Some have a difficult time under anaesthesia.

Daily combing and brushing of the long, silky, single coat is important and fairly straightforward. These dogs are usually clean and odourless. Bathe or dry shampoo when necessary. Keep the nails clipped and have the teeth cleaned regularly because they tend to accumulate tartar. They are average shedders and do not mat or tangle.

Papillons need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavioural problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe open area off-lead, such as a large enclosed field.

Papillons can be trained to perform small tricks. They can also be difficult to housebreak, but are, in general, easy to train otherwise.

If you allow this dog to become pack leader to humans, it may become very possessive of its owner and resent outsiders. When a dog believes he is pack leader to humans, it is called Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours, where the dog is allowed to believe he owns the house. This can cause a varying degree of behavioural problems such as, but not limited to, being nervous, high-strung, timid, separation anxiety, guarding, growling, snapping, biting, obsessive barking, dog aggression and being untrustworthy with children. These are not Papillon traits, but rather behaviours brought on by the way humans are treating the dog. Since most people who own small dogs, because of their size, unknowingly allow them to run the show, they are not generally recommended for young children. However, if you are your dog’s firm, consistent pack leader, providing rules he must follow and limits to what he is and is not allowed to do, along with daily pack walks, the Papillon can be very trustworthy with children. They will be calm if sufficiently exercised.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Pekingese Dogs

Pekingese

 KEY FACTS

The Pekingese is a small, well-balanced, compact dog. It has a stocky, muscular body that is slightly longer than it is tall. The head is large in proportion to the rest of the body, with the top of the head being large, broad and flat. The front of the face is flat. The muzzle is broad and flat, thicker below the eyes, separating the upper and lower areas of the face. The skin on the muzzle is black. The black nose is broad and short. Teeth meet in an under bite with a broad jaw bone. The large, prominent, round eyes are set wide apart with black eye rims. The heart-shaped ears are set on the front corners of the top of the skull, lying flat against the head. They are well feathered so that they appear to blend with the head, giving it a rectangular look. The neck is short and thick. The legs are short, thick and heavy-boned. The tail is high-set, slightly arched and carried over the back. The outer coat is long and coarse in texture with profuse feathering. The undercoat is soft and thick.

Lifespan: 10 – 15 years

Height: 15 – 23 cm (6 – 9 inches)

Weight: 3.6 – 4.5 kg (8 – 10 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: All colours, sometimes with a black mask.

Group: Toy Group

Pekingese are good for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors and will do okay without a garden.

Pekingese is a very brave little dog, sensitive, independent and extremely affectionate with its master. These adorable dogs can make wonderful companions.

If overfed, the Pekingese will quickly become overweight.

This breed makes a good watchdog.  They can become wary of strangers, and may become untrustworthy with children and even adults.

The Pekingese received its name from the ancient city of Peking, which is now called Beijing. They were considered sacred dogs regarded as a legendary Foo Dog that drove away spirits. They could only be owned by Chinese royalty and were regarded as semi-divine and if you stole one of these dogs you were put to death. People without noble rank had to bow to them. When an emperor died, his Pekingese was sacrificed so that the dog could go with him to give protection in the afterlife. In 1860 the British overtook the Chinese Imperial Palace. Chinese Imperial Guards were ordered to kill the little dogs to prevent them from falling into the hands of the “foreign devils.” Five of the Pekingese survived and were given to Queen Victoria. It was from these five dogs that the modern day Pekingese descended. In 1893 the breed was first shown in Britain.

Pekingese tend to catch colds very easily. Very difficult births. Prone to herniated disks and dislocated kneecaps. Trichiasis (lashes growing inwards toward the eyeballs). Breathing problems and heart problems are also common.

Daily combing and brushing of the very long, double coat is essential. Take extra care around the hindquarters, which can become solid and matted. Females shed the undercoat when in season. Dry shampoo regularly. Clean the face and eyes daily and check the hairy feet for foreign objects that stick there. These dogs are average shedders.

Pekingese need a daily walk, where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as instinct tells a dog the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavioural problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large, enclosed garden. Get your Peke accustomed to the lead when it is still a puppy. Some say Pekes will walk up to 4 miles on a nightly walk.

The Pekingese may be difficult to housebreak. Do not allow this dog to develop Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours where the dog believes he is pack leader to humans. This can cause varying degrees of negative behaviours, including, but not limited to being obstinate, self-willed, jealous, separation anxiety, guarding, growling, snapping, biting, and obsessive barking as the dog tries to tell YOU what to do.

If you feed them scraps, they have been known to refuse to eat, as much to show dominance over their owner, as to lack of appetite. They can become dog aggressive and courageous to the point of foolhardiness as they try and take over. These are NOT Pekingese traits. They are behaviours resulting from humans allowing them to take over the home. If a Pekingese is given rules to follow, limits to what they are and are not allowed to do, along with a daily pack walk to relieve their mental and physical energy, they will display a totally different, more appealing temperament. It is not fair to leave such a heavy weight on such a small dog, where he feels he has to keep HIS humans in line. As soon as you start showing your Peke you are able to be HIS strong, stable-minded pack leader, he can relax and be the wonderful little dog that he is.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Pomeranian dogs

Pomeranian

 KEY FACTS

The Pomeranian is a small, toy-sized dog. The head is wedge-shaped and in proportion with the body. The short muzzle is straight and fine. The stop is well pronounced. The colour of the nose varies with coat colour. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The almond-shaped eyes are dark and medium in size. The small, erect ears are set high. The feathered tail lies straight and flat over the back. The Pom has a thick, double coat. The outer coat is long, straight and harsh in texture, while the undercoat is soft, thick and short. The coat is longer around the neck and chest area.

Lifespan: Up to 15 years

Height: 18 – 30 cm (7 – 12 inches)

Weight: 1 – 3 kg (3 – 7 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: red, orange, white, cream, blue, brown, black, black and tan, wolf sable, orange sable, brindle and tri-colour

Group: Toy Group

Pomeranians are good for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors and will do okay without a garden. Be careful they do not overheat in hot weather.

The Pomeranian is a proud, lively little dog. It is intelligent, eager to learn, very loyal to its handler and family. The Pom is a wonderful companion and show dog. The breed’s docile temper and affectionate nature endear it to many.

It is alert, inquisitive and active: one of the most independent of the toy breeds, it needs a firm, gentle hand. Its liveliness and spirit make it well-liked by persons who do not usually care for toy dogs.

Pomeranians may be picky eaters.

If they are properly introduced they usually get along with other dogs and household animals without any problems.

Poms make good little watchdogs. Teach this dog early that it may bark a couple of times when the doorbell rings or when there are visitors, but then to keep quiet. Be very consistent about this.

Because of its size, it can make a good companion for an elderly person.

The Pomeranian got its name from the region of Pomerania, which is now the area of Germany and Poland, where it was developed from the ancient Spitz breeds. The original Pomeranians were much larger, weighing up to 30 pounds, and worked as sheep herders. Marie Antoinette, Emile Zola, Mozart and Queen Victoria all owned Pomeranians. In 1870 the Kennel Club in England first recognized them as a breed. In 1888 Queen Victoria began breeding and showing the dogs. It was she who started breeding them down in size, making the breed very popular in England. Some of the Pom’s talents include: watchdog, agility and performing tricks. Poms make superior circus performers.

Pomeranians are prone to dislocated patella (kneecap), slipped stifle, heart problems, eye infections, skin irritations and tooth decay. It is recommended that they are fed dry dog food or crunchy Milk Bones daily to help keep the teeth and gums in good condition. New-born Pom puppies are very tiny and fragile. Three new-borns can be held in the palm of one’s hand. Dams on the smaller side often need to deliver by caesarean section. When the dog is old it may become moulted with bald spots.

The Pomeranian’s very long, double coat should be brushed frequently. If you work from the head, parting the coat and brushing it forward, it will fall neatly back in place, so the task, although time-consuming, is relatively easy. The cottony undercoat is shed once or twice a year. Dry shampoo when necessary. Clean the eyes and ears daily and take the dog for regular dental check-ups. The Pomeranian is a constant shedder.

Poms need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behaviour problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large enclosed garden.

Poms have a delightful nature and do not cling to their handlers. This happy pup is good at learning tricks. Pomeranians need to see their owners as boss or they will become very demanding. If you allow your dog to tell YOU when and where to do things than you have a potential problem on your hands and you may not even realize it. It is not cute or smart, it is dominance and will lead to bigger problems in the future if it has not already.

Because of this breeds tiny size and its adorable Ewok-looking face, there are a very high percentage of Poms that fall victim to Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours where the dog believes he is pack leader to humans. This can cause many varying degrees of behavioural problems, which are NOT Pomeranian traits, but behaviours brought on by the way they are treated by the humans around them. Behaviours include, but are not limited to separation anxiety, becoming wilful, nervous, bold and sometimes temperamental, not hesitating to attack much bigger dogs. Guarding behaviours and excessive barking as they try and tell THEIR humans what THEY want them to do. They can become reserved with strangers, barking at them excessively, and sometimes growling, snapping and biting.

Because most humans treat this tiny canine in such a manner that the dog does not see them as pack leader, they are not recommended for children. However, if a Pom is given rules to follow, limits as to what it is allowed to do, daily pack walks and a calm, self-assured pack leader who displays confident assertion towards the dog, this can be a well-rounded, mentally stable, trustworthy, wonderful family companion.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Rhodesian Ridgeback dogs

Rhodesian Ridgeback

 KEY FACTS

The Rhodesian Ridgeback is a large, muscular hound. The broad head is flat between the ears. The muzzle is long and deep, with a defined stop. The nose is black, brown or liver, depending on the coat of the dog. This breed sometimes has a black tongue. The eyes are round and are usually brown, depending on the shade of the dog. The medium-sized ears are set high, dropping down, wide at the base and tapering to a point. The chest is deep. The front legs should be very straight and strong. The tail is fairly long, thicker at the base, tapering to a point and curving upward slightly. The coat is short and dense with a clearly defined symmetrical ridge of hairs growing in the opposite direction down the middle of the back.

Lifespan: 10 to 12 years

Height: 63 – 69 cm (25 – 27 inches)

Weight: 36 – 41 kg (80 – 90 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: light wheaten to red (sometimes with a little white on the chest) and black.

Group: Hound Group

Rhodesian Ridgebacks will do okay in an apartment as long as they get enough daily exercise. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with a large garden.

A fine hunter, the Rhodesian Ridgeback is ferocious in the hunt, but at home it is a calm, gentle, obedient, good dog. It is good natured, but some do not do well with small children because they may play too roughly and knock them down.

They are intelligent, skilful and straight-forward dogs that are loyal to the family.

Do not overfeed this breed. Provided this dog meets cats and other pets when it is young, any potential problem will be prevented. Ridgebacks make excellent jogging companions.

The Rhodesian Ridgeback originated in the Kingdom of the Matabele before it became Rhodesia and then Zimbabwe. It worked as a hunting dog and as a retriever, took care of children and guarded property. It descended from crosses between ridgebacked dogs that were imported by Boer settlers in the 16th and 17th centuries that were originally kept by native tribes in South Africa along with breeds such as the Khoikhoidog, Mastiff, Deerhound and possibly the Great Dane. Its standard, fixed in Matabeleland, dates from 1922. Reverend Helm introduced two Ridgebacks into Matabeleland in 1877. Big-game hunters soon discovered, that if used in packs they were excellent in hunting lions on horseback, hence the breed’s other name, the “African Lion Hound.” The dogs did well in the African heat of the day and the damp, cold nights.

Rhodesian Ridgebacks are a hardy breed, able to withstand dramatic changes of temperature, however they are susceptible to hip dysplasia, dermoid sinus and cysts. Also prone to mast cell tumours.

The smooth, shorthaired coat is easy to groom. Brush with a firm bristle brush and shampoo only when necessary. This breed is an average shedder.

These dogs have great stamina and you will tire long before they do. They need to be taken on daily, long, brisk walks or jogs. In addition, they need plenty of opportunity to run, preferably off the lead in a safe area. If these dogs are allowed to get bored, and are not walked or jogged daily, they can become destructive and start to display a wide array of behavioural problems.

They are brave and vigilant. Can be reserved toward strangers, so socialize well. They possess considerable stamina and without enough mental and physical exercise they can become high strung and unmanageable.

This breed needs a firm, confident, consistent pack leader who can provide rules the dog must follow and limits as to what it can and cannot do. Meek and/or passive owners, or owners who treat the dog like a human rather than a canine will have a hard time controlling this breed and may also cause them to become combative with other dogs.

When given what they need as the canine animal they will be excellent companion dogs, but are not recommended for most people, as most do not have the time nor energy to put into them.

Ridgebacks react best to an extremely consistent and firm but calm approach to training. They are intelligent and learn quickly, but will be stubborn and wilful if they are stronger-minded than the humans.

Training should be gentle, but firm and should start young while the dog is still small enough to manage. They are also very good watchdogs, but not suggested for guard dogs. They are very protective of owners. This has to be addressed during their early training. This breed can be more destructive than a Lab if not given enough exercise and is not convinced the humans are his authority figure.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
Rottweiler dogs

Rottweiler

 KEY FACTS

The Rottweiler has a muscular, massive, powerful body. The head is broad with a rounded forehead. The muzzle is well developed. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The wide nose is black. The lips are black and the inside of the mouth is dark. The medium-sized eyes are dark and almond shaped. Some Rottweilers have been known to have blue eyes or one blue and one brown eye. This trait is not recognized in the show world and does not meet the breed’s written standard. The ears are triangular and carried forward. The chest is broad and deep. The coat is short, hard and thick.

Lifespan: 10 to 12 years

Height: 61 – 69 cm (24 – 27 inches)

Weight: 43 – 59 kg (95 – 130 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: Black and Tan

Group: Working Group

Rottweilers will do okay in an apartment as long as they get enough daily exercise. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with a large garden.

The Rottie is powerful, calm, trainable, courageous and devoted to its owner and family. Loyal and protective, it will defend its family fiercely if needed, seemingly immune to pain.

It will accept cats, other dogs and other household pets as long as the dog has been socialized well and has owners who assert their authority over the dog. Friends and relatives of the family are normally enthusiastically welcomed. Strangers from whom the dog senses bad intentions can get no further than the driveway.

The Rottweiler is probably descended from the Italian Mastiff, which accompanied the herds that the Romans brought with them when they invaded Europe.

During the Middle Ages, it was used as a herder, as a guard, messenger dog, draught dog and for police work.

It was bred in the German town of Rottweiler in Wurttemberg. Almost extinct in the 1800s, the breed population began a comeback in the early twentieth century due to the efforts of enthusiastic breeders centered in Stuttgart.

In Germany on January 13, 1907, the DRK (Deutscher Rottweiler-Klub (German Rottweiler Club)) was established. Shortly after on April 27, 1907, the SDRK (Süddeutscher Rottweiler-Klub (South German Rottweiler Club)) was formed, which later became the IRK (International Rottweiler Club). The Rottweiler standard was then set. Some of the Rottweiler’s talents include: tracking, herding, watchdog, guarding, search and rescue, guide dogs for the blind, police work, carting, competitive obedience and Schutzhund.

This breed is susceptible to ACL damage. Prone to hip dysplasia. Also prone to entropion (narrowing of the slit between the eyelids). Tends to snore. Can overeat easily.

The smooth, glossy coat is easy to groom. Brush with a firm bristle brush and bathe only when necessary. This breed is an average shedder.

The Rottweiler needs plenty of exercise. You can’t give these robust dogs too much work or exercise; they thrive on it. They need to be taken on a daily walk or jog. Running in the woods and in open country makes them very happy and they have no desire to wander from you. Swimming or running beside a bicycle are perfect activities for this dog and it also loves retrieving a ball.

Serious, even-tempered, brave, confident and courageous, this breed needs an owner who is strong minded, calm, but firm and able to handle this dog’s massive size. The Rottie is a docile, natural guard dog with a laid-back, reliable temperament. It is highly intelligent and has proven its worth beyond question in police, military and customs work over many centuries and can be trained for competitive obedience. Because of its size, training should begin when the dog is a small puppy. This breed needs a lot of leadership and socialization. It will not be happy confined to a kennel or back garden. The objective in training this dog is to achieve pack leader status. It is a natural instinct for a dog to have an order in its pack. When we humans live with dogs, we become their pack. The entire pack cooperates under a single leader. Lines are clearly defined and rules are set. You and all other humans MUST be higher up in the order than the dog. That is the only way your relationship can be a success. When the Rottweiler receives consistent leadership and is trained, it will be a good playmate for the children.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRK= Deutscher Rottweiler-Klub
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • IRK = International Rottweiler Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Saint Bernard Dogs

Saint Bernard

 KEY FACTS

The Saint Bernard is a giant, strong, muscular dog. As long as the weight stays in proportion with the height, the taller the dog the more prized it is. The massive head is powerful. The muzzle is short, wider than it is long. The teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. The nose is broad, with wide open nostrils, and like the lips is black in colour. The medium-sized eyes are set somewhat to the sides and are dark in colour. The medium-sized ears are set high, dropping and standing slightly away from the head. The legs are muscular. The feet are large with strong, well-arched toes. The long tail is broad and powerful at the base held low when the dog is relaxed. Dewclaws are usually removed. There are two types of coat: rough and smooth, but both are very dense. The face and ears are usually black. In the rough-coated dogs, the hair is slightly longer and there is feathering on the thighs and legs.

Lifespan: 8 to 10 years

Height: 61 – 70 cm (25.5 – 27.5 inches)

Weight: 50 – 91 kg (110 – 200 pounds)

Size: Giant

Energy: Medium

Colours: white with markings in tan, red, mahogany, brindle and black, all in various combinations.

Group: Working Group

The Saint Bernard will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. These dogs are relatively inactive indoors and a small garden is sufficient. They can live outdoors, but would much rather be with their family. They have a low tolerance for hot weather, warm rooms and cars. Can wheeze and snore.

Saint Bernards are extremely gentle, friendly and very tolerant of children.

They are slow moving, patient, obedient, extremely loyal, eager and willing to please.

The Saint Bernard is a good watchdog. Even its size is a good deterrent. They drool after they drink or eat. Be sure you remain the dog’s pack leader. Dogs want nothing more than to know what is expected of them and the St Bernard is no exception. Allowing a dog of this size and magnitude to be unruly can be dangerous and shows poor ownership skills.

Saint Bernards have a highly developed sense of smell and also seem to have a sixth sense about impending danger from storms and avalanches.

The Saint Bernard was founded in 980 AD by St. Bernard de Menthon and bred by monks, most likely by crossing the ancient Tibetan mastiff with the Great Dane, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog and the Great Pyrenees.

The Alpine Mastiff, an extinct Molosser dog breed is the progenitor to the modern day Saint Bernard. The first Saint Bernards were of the shorthaired variety, as the longhaired variety’s coat tended to collect icicles.

They were used by the Hospice, a refuge for travellers through the dangerous Alpine pass between Switzerland and Italy.

In the middle of the seventeenth century, the Saint Bernard became popular as a rescue dog working to save people from avalanches in the snowy passes near the Hospice.

The dogs are able to smell a person under many feet of snow. They have saved thousands of people searching out and finding lost or injured travellers. The dogs would work in packs looking for the victims. When found they would lick and lie down with them in order to keep them warm. While a dog or more would lie with the body(s), another dog would head back to the Hospice to alert them that they found the humans. A full rescue team would then be sent out.

The Saint Bernard has also been known to be able to predict storms and avalanches. This may be possible because of the dog’s ability to hear very low-frequency sounds which humans cannot. Some of the Saint Bernard’s talents are search and rescue, guard dog, watchdog and carting.

Prone to “wobbler” syndrome, heart problems, skin problems, hip dysplasia, tumours and ectropion—a folding outward of the eyelid rim, usually on the lower lid. Twisted stomachs should be watched for. As these dogs are prone to bloat, it is best to feed them two or three small meals a day instead of one large meal.

Both types of coat are easy to groom. Comb and brush with a firm bristle brush, and bathe only when necessary. Shampoo may strip the coat of its oily, water-resistant properties, so use a mild soap. The eyes, which may be inclined to water, need special attention to keep them clean and free of irritants. This breed sheds twice a year.

A long walk each day is needed to keep the Saint Bernard in good mental and physical condition. Puppies should not have too much exercise at one time until their bones are well formed and strong. Short walks and brief play sessions are best until the dog is about two years old.

Be sure to socialize this breed very well at a young age with people and other animals. It is highly intelligent and easy to train; however, training should begin early, while the dog is still a manageable size. Teach this dog not to jump on humans starting at puppyhood. Bear in mind that an unruly dog of this size presents a problem for even a strong adult if it is to be exercised in public areas on a lead, so take control right from the start, teaching the dog to heel.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Saluki Dogs

Saluki

 KEY FACTS

The Saluki is a slim, Greyhound-like dog. The head is long and narrow, moderately wide between the ears, tapering gradually toward the nose with a slight stop. The nose is black or liver in colour. The teeth meet in a level bite. The large, oval eyes are dark to hazel in colour. The long, ears hang down close to the head. The neck is long and the chest is deep and narrow. The front legs are straight. The feet are thickly haired between the toes for protection from rough terrain. The long tail is carried low and is well feathered with hair. The coat is short with long, silky feathering on the ears and tail. A rarer, coarser, smooth variety with no feathering also occurs. It has an unusual gait when at top speed: all four legs are in the air at the same time.

Lifespan: 10 to 12 years

Height: 58 – 71 cm (23 – 28 inches)

Weight: 13 – 30 kg (29 – 66 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: Medium

Colours: white, cream, fawn, golden, red, grizzle and tan, black and tan tricolour or white, black and tan

Group: Hound Group

The Saluki is not recommended for apartment life. These dogs are relatively active indoors and will do best with acreage. This breed should sleep indoors. They prefer warm temperatures over cold ones.

The Saluki is gentle, friendly, even-tempered and extremely devoted. It can be somewhat aloof, even with its family. This loyal dog may become attached to one person.  Good with children who do not try to be rough with it.

Take great caution around pets such as birds, guinea pigs, hamsters and rabbits. They can get along with family cats if the cat is allowed to assert its dominance over the dog, but may chase strange cats.

The Saluki, also called the Gazelle Hound, Arabian Hound, or Persian Greyhound, is native to the area from eastern Turkestan to Turkey. It is believed to be closely related to the Afghan Hound, which is another ancient breed.

The Saluki is the royal dog of Egypt, and perhaps one of the oldest domesticated dogs known to man. It was named after the Arabian city “Saluki” in the Middle East, which no longer exists today. Their bodies were often found mummified alongside the bodies of the Pharaohs themselves, and their pictures appear in ancient Egyptian tombs dating from 2100 BC.

The Muslims considered them a sacred gift of Allah, and they were never sold but only offered as gifts of friendship or honour.

Salukis with a patch of white in the middle of the forehead are thought by Bedouin tribes to have “the kiss of Allah” and are regarded as special.

Incredibly fast even over rough terrain, this desert sight hunter was used by the Arabs to hunt gazelle, the fastest of the antelopes, along with fox, jackal and hare. They have also been successful as racing dogs.

The Saluki is prone to some genetic eye diseases and cancer. It can get sunburn, especially on the nose.

This odour-free dog’s coat is easy to groom. Just occasionally brush and comb, especially on the longer-haired parts of the dog. The ears should be checked regularly to make sure they are clean. The Saluki is an average shedder.

The Saluki is a natural athlete that needs a lot of exercise, including a daily, long, brisk walk or run. They are happiest when running, however many are lost or killed when they are allowed to get free and they spot a small animal to chase.

This very independent dog can never be off its lead except in an isolated, scouted area. These dogs hunt on sight. They will pay no attention to their handler’s calls if they are chasing something. In some countries they are not permitted to be left off of their lead at all.

Salukis run at top speeds of 40 mph (55km/h) or more with their feet barely touching the ground. These top speeds are reached in short spurts, but they also have exceptional endurance. An excellent way to exercise your Salukis is to let it trot alongside your bike.

Sensitive, this breed does not take kindly to harsh discipline. It must be trained with calm, gentle, but firm, consistency. These dogs are fairly submissive by nature to people and dogs and are easily distracted. Be sure you remain the dog’s pack leader so the dog feels secure with his surroundings.

Dogs want nothing more than to know what is expected of them and the Saluki is no exception. The Saluki does well with other Salukis. They are a pleasant and calm companion and make good watchdogs.

Though not aggressive with people, the Saluki’s natural instinct is to chase and kill non-canine animals. They may need obedience training to keep their deep-rooted hunting instincts under control, but you can never train the instinct out of the dog.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • IAASC= International Aseel Arabian Saluki Center
  • KCU = Kennel Club Union
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • WAASO = World Aseel Arabian Saluki Organization
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Samoyed Dogs

Samoyed

 KEY FACTS

The Samoyed has a compact, muscular body. The wedge-shaped head is broad and slightly crowned.

The muzzle is in proportion to the size of the dog, tapering to the nose. The stop is well defined but not abrupt. The nose colour can be black, brown or liver. The lips are black. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The dark, almond-shaped eyes are deep-set, somewhat wide apart, with a slanting lower lid and dark rims. The erect, triangular ears are slightly rounded at the tips. The tail is moderately long, well-covered with hair, carried rolled on the back. The legs are solid and muscular and the feet are flat and covered with hair. The thick, double coat is profuse. The undercoat is soft, short and thick with longer hairs growing out to the outer coat. The outer coat is harsh and stands straight out, not wavy. Males’ coats are more profuse than females’. There is a ruff around the neck and shoulders, framing the head.

Lifespan: 12 to 15 years

Height: 53 – 60 cm (21 – 23.5 inches)

Weight: 20.5 – 30 kg (45 – 65 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: Medium

Colours: pure white, biscuit, yellow and cream

Group: Pastoral Group

The Samoyed will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. It is very active indoors and a small garden is sufficient. Its heavy coat makes this dog unsuited to life in very hot climates.

The Samoyed is a gentle dog. Very devoted, easy-going, friendly and quite playful, it loves everyone. It will gladly be friendly to all, including intruders. It is too friendly to be of much use as a watchdog, although its bark will alert you to the presence of strangers. It willingly adapts to family life and gets along well with children.

Samoyeds can get along with non-canine pets when raised with them from puppyhood or when properly trained to do so, however they do have an instinct to hunt and caution should be taken around other small animals. They can get along with a family cat. This breed has an instinct to herd.

Samoyeds are an ancient working breed. They have lived in Siberia with hunters and fishermen known as Samoyeds, hence where the breed received its name.

The Samoyed people used the dogs to pull their sleds, guard their property and for herding reindeer. Its gene pool is closely related to the primitive dog with no wolf or fox mixed in.

The dogs slept with the people to keep them warm. Robert Scott, an explorer, brought the dogs to England in 1889. It was in England that the breed was further developed and from there it spread throughout the rest of the world.

Samoyeds are particularly prone to hip dysplasia, and some suffer from diabetes. Also prone to skin allergies. They are prone to PRA (eyes), primarily in male dogs.

Extensive grooming is needed. They are seasonally heavy shedders. The fluffy double coat needs frequent brushing, but tends to stay white without bathing. Some people with allergies have reported that the coat of the Samoyed did not bother them.

Needs a reasonable amount of exercise, including a daily walk or jog. Take it easy during warm weather because the woolly undercoat inhibits loss of the heat built up during exercise.

It is highly intelligent, and will respond to firm, patient training, which should be started at an early age. Make sure you are this dog’s firm, confident, consistent pack leader to avoid potential behaviour issues such as, but not limited to, obsessive barking.

The Sammy is accustomed to working in teams, and shows outstanding qualities. When this dog is given what it needs to be a stable-minded dog, i.e. enough mental and physical exercise, along with clear leadership, it proves itself to be outstanding, good-natured, lively and sociable.

It never seeks trouble but can handle an adversary if necessary. These dogs have a reputation of being chewers. If the Sammy is lacking in leadership and/or exercise it can become very destructive if left alone for many hours at a stretch.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Shih Tzu Dogs

Shih Tzu

 KEY FACTS

The Shih Tzu is a small, sturdy dog with a body that is slightly longer than it is tall. The head is round and broad, and wide between the eyes. The square muzzle is short, with an inch or less from the tip of the nose to the defined stop. The nose is broad, with well-open nostrils. Nose, lips and eye rims are liver on liver coloured dogs, blue on blue dogs and black on all other colours. The teeth meet in a level or under bite. The large, round eyes are dark in colour, but lighter on blue and liver dogs. The large, pendant, low-set ears hang down and are covered in abundant hair. The back is level. The muscular legs are straight and well-boned. The high-set tail is carried over the back and is covered in abundant hair. The double coat is dense and long, flowing down over the dog. The hair above the eyes is often tied in a topknot. There is a profuse beard and moustache and the hair on the muzzle is short.

Lifespan: 15+ years

Height: Up to 28 cm (11 inches)

Weight: 4 – 7 kg (9 – 16 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: All

Group: Utility Group

The Shih Tzu is good for apartment life. These dogs are fairly active indoors and will do okay without a garden. This breed is sensitive to heat.

The Shih Tzu is an alert, lively, little dog. It is happy and hardy, and packed with character.

Playful and spunky, this affectionate little dog likes to be with people and is generally good with other pets.

Because of this dog’s small size and its adorable face, it commonly develops Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours where the dog believes he is the boss of humans. This causes a varying degree of behavioural issues, such as, but not limited to separation anxiety, guarding, growling, snapping, and even biting. These dogs may become untrustworthy with children and sometimes adults, as they try and tell the humans what THEY want THEM to do. They will be obstinate as they take their stand and defend their top position in the pack. They may bark obsessively as they try and TELL you what they want. These behaviours are NOT Shih Tzu traits, but rather behaviours brought on by the way they are treated by people around them.

Sixteenth century documents and paintings show dogs resembling the Shih Tzu. The Shih Tzu is said to have descended from crossing the Lhasa Apso or Tibetan mountain dog and Pekingese, in the city of Peking in the 17th century.

The dogs were favourites of the Chinese royals and were so prized that for years the Chinese refused to sell, trade, or give away any of the dogs. It was not until the 1930s that the first pair was imported to England, when it was discovered by English soldiers during World War II.

The Shih Tzu was recognized in Britain in 1946. The name “Imperial Shih Tzu” or “Tiny Teacup Shih Tzu” is often used to describe a smaller sized Shih Tzu, bred smaller than the written standard.

Prone to slipped stifle and spinal disc disease caused by a long back and short legs. Also ear infections, eye problems such as cherry eye and early tooth loss. Tends to wheeze and snore and can have respiratory problems. These dogs gain weight easily and should not be overfed.

These little dogs require a good daily grooming using a bristle brush. When kept in a long coat a topknot is usually tied to keep the hair out of the dog’s eyes. Some owners prefer to have them trimmed to make the coat easier and less time-consuming to care for.

Keep the ear passages and area around the eyes clean. Shih Tzus have sensitive eyes that need to be kept clean. There are special drops you can buy to put in them if needed. Ask your vet what to use on your dog.

This breed sheds little to no hair and is good for allergy sufferers if its coat is kept very well groomed, due to the fact that they shed little skin dander.

The Shih Tzu needs a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of its exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil its primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behaviour problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large, enclosed garden. Do not overfeed this breed or it will quickly become fat.

The gentle, loyal Shih Tzu makes friends easily and responds well to consistent, patient training. It makes a very alert watchdog. It is courageous and clever.

Some can be difficult to housebreak.

The Shih Tzu needs all of the humans in the house to be pack leaders, with the rules of the house made consistently clear. Owners who allow their dogs to take over may find them to be snappish if they are surprised or peeved.

Give this dog rules and limits as to what it is and is not allowed to do. Be its firm, stable, consistent pack leader. Take it for daily pack walks to burn mental and physical energy. Its temperament will improve for the better, and you will bring out the sweet, trustworthy dog in it.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Siberian Husky Dog Breed

Siberian Husky

 KEY FACTS

Siberian Huskies are strong, compact, working sled dogs. The medium-sized head is in proportion to the body, with a muzzle that is equal in length to the skull, with a well-defined stop. The colour of the nose depends upon the colour of the dog’s coat. It is black in grey, tan or black dogs, liver in copper dogs and flesh-coloured in pure white dogs. The medium-sized, oval-shaped eyes are moderately spaced and come in blue, brown, amber or any combination thereof. Eyes can be half blue and half brown (parti-eyed), or dogs can have one blue eye and one brown eye (bi-eyed). The erect ears are triangular in shape, and set high up on the head. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The tail is carried over the back in a sickle curve, not curved to either side when the dog is excited. The large “snow shoe” feet have hair between the toes to help keep them warm and for gripping on ice. The medium-length, double coat is thick and can withstand temperatures as low as -50° to -60° C (-58° to -76° F). The coat also comes in a longhaired variety called a woolly coat. The woolly (sometimes spelled wooley) coat length comes from a recessive gene and is not in most of the kennel club’s written standard.

Lifespan: 12 to 15 years

Height: 53 – 60 cm (21 – 23 inches)

Weight: 20 – 27 kg (45 – 60 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: black to pure white, black and white, red and white, brown, grey and white, silver, wolf-grey, sable and white, red-orange with black tips, dark grey and white.

Group: Working Group

They are not usually recommended for apartments, however they can live in apartments if well trained and properly exercised. Siberian Huskies are very active indoors and do best with a large enclosed garden. Because of their heavy coats, these dogs prefer cool climates. One has to use common sense with respect to maintaining them in the heat by providing adequate shade and air conditioning. This breed prefers to live in packs.

Siberian Huskies are loving, gentle, playful, happy-go-lucky dogs that are fond of their families. Keen, docile, social, relaxed and rather casual, this is a high-energy dog, especially when young. Good with children and friendly with strangers, they are not watchdogs, for they bark little and love everyone.

Huskies are very intelligent and trainable, but they will only obey a command if they see the human is stronger minded than themselves. If the handler does not display leadership, they will not see the point in obeying. Training takes patience, consistency and an understanding of the Arctic dog character. If you are not this dog’s 100% firm, confident, consistent pack leader, he will take advantage, becoming wilful and mischievous.

Huskies make an excellent jogging companion, as long as it is not too hot. Huskies may be difficult to housebreak. This breed likes to howl and gets bored easily. Does not do well if left alone for a long period of time without a great deal of exercise beforehand. A lonely Husky, or a Husky that does not get enough mental and physical exercise can be very destructive. Remember that the Husky is a sled dog in heart and soul.

It is good with other pets if raised with them from puppyhood. Huskies are thrifty eaters and need less food than you might expect. This breed likes to roam. Siberian Huskies can make wonderful companions for people who are aware of what to expect from these beautiful and intelligent animals and are willing to put the time and energy into them.

Siberian Huskies were used for centuries by the Chukchi Tribe, off the eastern Siberian peninsula to pull sleds, herd reindeer and as a watchdog. They were perfect working dogs for the harsh Siberian conditions: hardy, able to integrate into small packs, and quite happy to work for hours on end. The dogs have great stamina and are lightweight. Native to Siberia, the Husky was brought to Alaska by fur traders in Malamute for Arctic races because of their great speed. In 1908 Siberian Huskies were used for the first All-Alaskan Sweepstakes, an event where mushers take their dogs on a 408-mile long dogsled race. The dogs gained popularity in 1925 when there was a diphtheria epidemic in Nome, Alaska. Siberian Huskies were used to bring in the much needed medicine to the people. In the early to mid-1900s Admiral Byrd used the dogs in his Antarctic Expeditions. During World War II the dogs served on the Army’s Arctic Search and Rescue Unit. The Siberian Husky’s talents are sledding, carting and racing.

Prone to hip dysplasia, ectopy (displacement of the urethra), eye issues such as juvenile cataracts, PRA (primarily in male dogs), corneal dystrophy and crystalline corneal opacities.

Breeders can get hip screenings and eye screenings yearly from a canine ophthalmologist and register the exam.

Also prone to a skin issue known as zinc responsive dermatitis, which improves by giving zinc supplements.

The coat sheds heavily twice a year. During that time they need to be brushed and combed daily.

Siberian Huskies need a fair amount of exercise, including a daily walk or jog, but should not be excessively exercised in warm weather. They need a large garden with a high fence, but bury the wire at the base of the fence because they are likely to dig their way out and go off hunting.

Siberian Huskies are notorious for being difficult to train. They are a pack dog with a hierarchical order of leadership and, therefore, are stubborn, strong-willed, and independent. Confidence and a strong-will are important qualities to have as an owner to establish obedience in your dog.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Staffordshire Bull Terrier Dogs

Staffordshire Bull Terrier

 KEY FACTS

The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a muscular dog, very strong for its size. The head is short and deep with a broad skull, short foreface, distinct stop and strong jaws. The nose is black. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The lips should be tight and clean. The round eyes are dark in colour, in relation to the coat. The somewhat small ears are either rose or half pricked. The front legs are straight. The paws are medium sized and well padded. The low-set tail is thicker at the base, tapering to a point and carried low. The tail should not curl much and may be likened to an old-fashioned pump handle. The smooth, short coat comes in red, fawn, white, black or blue, or any of these colours with white and in any shade of brindle with or without white markings.

Lifespan: 12 to 15 years

Height: 36 – 41 cm (14 – 16 inches)

Weight: 11 – 17 kg (25 – 38 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: See Description

Group: Terrier Group

The Staffordshire Bull Terrier will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. It is very active indoors and will do okay with a small garden

The Staffordshire Bull Terrier does everything full throttle: play, work and love. It is extremely courageous and obedient, affectionate with a sense of humour.

The breed’s reputation with children is second to none. Adored and adoring within its family circle.

It is usually good with other pets in the household, but without a stern, human pack leader giving timely corrections when needed, it may be combative with dogs outside the family. Socialize them well.

This breed is intelligent, persistent and active. Not a good swimmer.

The Staffordshire Bull Terrier was developed in the region of Staffordshire, England, in the nineteenth century from crosses between Bulldogs and various local terriers that were similar to the Manchester Terrier.

The Staffordshire Bull was developed for the then-popular sport of bull baiting. The breed’s popularity waned as interest in the sport waned.

Then, in the twentieth century, interest in the breed grew again. The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is not a dog for every family, but in the hands of a dominant, experienced owner it can be a successful pet and family guardian.

Prone to cataracts, HC and PHPV (both eye complaints), although through screening of both parents this can be avoided. DNA work in the UK is very nearly complete as to cure this (people should ensure they buy from eye tested parents, and that puppies are screened at a few weeks old).

Hip dysplasia is occasionally seen. Prone to mast cell tumours. Puppies are prone to having an elongated soft palate. Like all the bully type breeds, Staffordshire Bull Terriers often have gas problems.

The smooth, shorthaired coat is easy to groom. Brush every day with a firm bristle brush, and bathe or dry shampoo as necessary. The coat will gleam if rubbed with a piece of towelling or chamois.

The Staffordshire Bull Terrier possesses tremendous stamina and must have plenty of exercise, which needs to include a daily walk or jog.

As a puppy these dogs tend to chew a great deal so make sure you provide them with plenty of chew toys. Their powerful jaws will tear though vinyl toys to get to the squeaker in no time. This can be dangerous if the dog swallows the plastic.

Be sure to only give your Staffie strong toys. Do not let puppies chew on human hands. Do not allow your dog to be off its lead unless it is safe to do so.

They can be trained for agility and competitive obedience. The breed competes in agility and obedience in the UK at the highest level. Staffies love a challenge and variety.

Owners need to protect these dogs from injuring themselves. Totally fearless and curious, they’re liable to jump off of a deck or walk through broken glass.

They can be difficult to housebreak. These dogs are not recommended for most families, because they need every member of their family to be a firm, confident, consistent pack leader, providing rules they must follow and placing limits on what they can and cannot do. Without this, they will become stubborn and hard to handle.

The objective in training this dog is to achieve pack leader status. It is a natural instinct for a dog to have an order in its pack. When we humans live with dogs, we become their pack. The entire pack cooperates under a single leader. Lines are clearly defined and rules are set. You and all other humans MUST be higher up in the order than the dog. That is the only way your relationship can be a success.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Standard Poodle

Standard Poodle

 KEY FACTS

The Standard Poodle is a medium- to large-sized dog. When groomed to show dog standards the body is meant to give off a square appearance. It is approximately the same length as the height at the withers. The skull is moderately rounded with a slight but definite stop. It has a long, straight muzzle. The dark, oval-shaped eyes are set somewhat far apart and are black or brown. The ears hang close to the head and are long and flat. Both the front and back legs are in proportion with the size of the dog. The topline is level. The tail is set and carried high. It is sometimes docked to half its length or less to make the dog look more balanced. Dewclaws may be removed. The oval-shaped feet are rather small and the toes are arched. The coat is either curly or corded. It comes in all solid colours including black, blue, silver, grey, cream, apricot, red, white, brown or café-au-lait. While it does not make the written show standard, some breeders are breeding parti-coloured Poodles. See grooming for different types of Poodle clips.

Lifespan: 12 to 15 years

Height: 38 cm (15 inches or more)

Weight: 20 – 32 kg (45 – 70 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: Medium

Colours: See Description

Group: Terrier Group

If given enough exercise, Standard Poodles are relatively inactive indoors. They will be okay in an apartment if they are sufficiently exercised. A small garden will suffice.

The Standard Poodle is proud, graceful, noble, good-natured, enjoyable and cheerful.

It is generally friendly toward strangers, and is excellent with children.

The Standard Poodle is good with other dogs. Some can make good guard dogs.

Make sure you are this dog’s firm, consistent, confident pack leader, providing daily pack walks to avoid separation anxiety and other unwanted behaviour issues.

The Poodle has been known throughout Western Europe for at least 400 years and is depicted in 15th century paintings and in bas-reliefs from the 1st century.

The subject is controversial of where the dog was officially developed and no one really knows the breed’s true country of origin. France has taken a claim on the origin, but other claims have been Denmark, or the ancient Piedmont. What is certain is that the dog was a descendant of the now-extinct French Water Dog, the Barbet and possibly the Hungarian Water Hound.

The name “Poodle” most likely came out of the German word “Pudel,” which means “one who plays in water.” The “Poodle clip” was designed by hunters to help the dogs swim more efficiently. They would leave hair on the leg joints to protect them from extreme cold and sharp reeds.

The hunters in Germany and France used the Poodle as a gundog and as a retriever of waterfowl and to sniff out truffles laying underground in the woods.

The French started using the breed as a circus performer because of the dog’s high intelligence and trainability.

The breed became very popular in France, which led to the common name “French Poodle,” but the French people actually called the breed the “Caniche,” meaning “duck dog.”

The Toy and Miniature Poodle varieties were bred down from larger dogs, today known as Standard Poodles.

In the 18th century smaller poodles became popular with royal people.

The three official sizes are the Toy, Miniature and Standard Poodle. They are considered one breed and are judged by the same written standard but with different size requirements. Breeders are also breeding an in-between size called a Klein Poodle (Moyen Poodle) and a smaller Teacup Poodle. Some of the Poodle’s talents include: retrieving, agility, watchdog, competitive obedience and performing tricks.

A long-lived breed, Poodles are, nevertheless, subject to many genetic diseases. Runny eyes, cataracts and progressive retinal atrophy, which may cause blindness. Allergies and skin conditions are common, possibly due to unskilled use of clippers or allergies to shampoo and/or colour reinforcer. Hip dysplasia and ear infections are also common. They are prone to Von Willebrand’s Disease. Brown Poodles tend to become prematurely grey. Prone to bloat, so it is wise to feed your Standard 2-3 small meals a day, rather than one large one.

Extensive grooming is needed if the dog is to be shown.

Poodles must be bathed regularly and clipped every six to eight weeks.

Clean and check the ears frequently for wax or mites or infection and pull out hairs growing inside the ear canal.

The teeth need regular scaling. Since the coat does not shed it needs to be clipped.

There are several different types of Poodle clips. The most common for pet owners is an easy care clip called a “pet clip,” “puppy clip” or “lamb clip,” where the coat is cut short all over the body. Popular show clips are the English saddle and the Continental clip, where the rear half of the body is shaved, bracelets are left around the ankles, and pom-poms are left on the tails and hips.

Other clip styles are the modified continental clip, town and country clip, kennel or utility clip, summer clip, and the Miami of bikini clip. Poodles shed little to no hair and are good for allergy sufferers.

The Standard Poodle needs to be taken on a daily walk. Although they adore water and love to go for walks, Poodles are not demanding as far as exercise goes, so long as they get their walk in. They however, will keep in better spirits and be fitter if given regular opportunities to run and play off the lead in a safe area. The Standard retains its sporting instincts, has great stamina, and needs more activity than the smaller varieties.

This highly intelligent dog is one of the most trainable breeds. Some can be trained to hunt. The Standard Poodle is generally lower energy and often calmer than the smaller varieties of Poodles, but will become high strung if you do not give it the proper amount and type of exercise.

It is sensitive to the tone of one’s voice and will not listen if it senses that it is stronger minded than its owner, however it will also not respond well to harsh discipline.

Owners need to be calm, yet possess an air of natural authority. They are not the type of dog to live outside in a kennel, as they enjoy being with their owners and dislike being alone.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Tibetan Spaniel

Tibetan Spaniel

 KEY FACTS

The Tibetan Spaniel is often mistaken for the Pekingese, the differences being that the Tibetan Spaniel has a less profuse coat, slightly longer face and does not have the extra skin around the eyes.

The body is somewhat longer than tall. The slightly domed head is small in proportion to the body. The blunt muzzle is medium length without any wrinkles, and with a slight, but defined stop. The nose is black. The dark brown eyes are set well apart, oval in shape and medium in size. Teeth should meet in an undershot or level bite. The front legs are slightly bowed and the feet are hare-like. The well-feathered tail is set high and carried over the back. The Silky double-coat lies flat, is short and smooth on the face and front of the legs and medium length on the body. The neck is covered in a mane of hair which is more prominent in males. There is feathering between the toes that often hangs out over the feet. The coat comes in all colours, solid, multi-coloured or shaded, including fawn, red, gold, cream, white, black and black and tan, often with white markings on the feet.

Lifespan: 12 to 15 years

Height: 51 cm (10 inches)

Weight: 4.1 – 6.8 kg (9 – 15 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: See Description

Group: Utility Group

The Tibetan Spaniel is good for apartment life. It is relatively inactive indoors and will do okay without a garden.

The Tibetan Spaniel is cheerful, happy, charming, very clever and trusting.

This breed is a fine family companion, very independent and a good watchdog.  It is not yappy, yet will bark at intruders and odd noises.  It can move fairly quickly.

This breed gets along with dogs and other animals.

This breed originated in Tibet. It is descended from dogs from China and other Buddhist countries.

The Tibetan Spaniel is considered an ancient breed, being that there is evidence of its existence over 2000 years ago.

Most small Asian dogs are believed to be descended from the Tibbie. Highly esteemed in ancient Tibet, they were often given as gifts to royal houses and the dogs were spread throughout Asia.

Depictions of the dogs were found on early Eastern art dating back as far as 1100 BC.

The dogs worked turning the prayer wheel for their masters and also as watchdogs in Tibetan monasteries. They would sit up on the high walls and bark at anything they believed didn’t belong. The breed was first introduced to England in the late 1800s.

Prone to respiratory problems and heatstroke.

Comb and brush the coat regularly. While this breed is an average shedder all year round, the coat comes out in clumps once a year.

The Tibetan Spaniel requires moderate exercise, which includes a daily, nice long walk. It will also enjoy a romp in the garden.

Tibetan Spaniels can be slightly difficult to train. If you allow this dog to be pack leader over humans, he can become overprotective, may not be trustworthy with children and reserved with strangers.

He may become stubborn and sometimes dog aggressive.

These are not Tibetan Spaniel traits, but what is known as Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours, where the dog believes it is the boss of the home. As soon as the humans take the control away from the dog, the behaviours will subside.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
Weimaraner dog breed

Weimaraner

 KEY FACTS

The Weimaraner is a moderately large, athletic, working dog. The medium-sized head has a moderate stop with a medial line going down the forehead. The nose is grey and the teeth meet in a scissors bite. The somewhat wide-set eyes come in shades of light amber, grey or blue-grey. The high-set ears are long and pendant, folded forward and hanging down along the sides of the head. The front legs are straight with webbed, compact feet. The toenails are grey or amber in colour. The tail is customarily docked to 1 ½ inches (4 cm) when the dog is two days old. Note: docking tails is illegal in most parts of Europe. Dewclaws are usually removed. The topline slopes gently downward from the shoulders to the rump. The short, smooth coat is tight against the whole body and comes in shades of mouse-grey to silver-grey, blending with darker shades on the body and lighter shades on the head and ears. It also comes in a rarer longhaired variety. All shades of grey are accepted. There is sometimes a small white marking on the chest.

Lifespan: 10 to 14 years

Height: 61 – 69 cm (24 – 27 inches)

Weight: 25 – 32 kg (55 – 70 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: Medium

Colours: See Description

Group: Gundog Group

Weimaraners will do okay in an apartment if they are sufficiently exercised. They are relatively inactive indoors and will do best with at least a large garden. They are not suited to outdoor kennel life.

The Weimaraner is happy, loving, intelligent, cheerful and affectionate. It is good with children.

Without the proper exercise it will be very rambunctious and difficult to control.

The breed is several centuries old, is derived from the same selective stock as other German hunting breeds and is a descendant of the Bloodhound.

The Weimaraner is a good all-around hunting dog and an excellent pointer. It was originally used as a big-game hunter for bear, deer and wolves, but is used more today as a birddog and even a water retriever.

A Weimaraner appeared in a Van Dyck painting from the early 1600s.

Howard Knight, who founded the first American Weimaraner breed club, imported the dogs to the United States in 1929.

The popular children’s TV show Sesame Street has been known to play skits with this breed dressed up in human clothes. Some of its talents include: hunting, tracking, retrieving, pointing, watchdog, guarding, police work, service for the disabled, search and rescue and agility.

Prone to bloat; it is better to feed them two or three small meals a day rather than one large meal.

Also can be prone to hip dysplasia and hypertrophic osteodystrophy (excessive rapid growth). Also prone to mast cell tumours.

The smooth, shorthaired coat is easy to keep in peak condition.

Brush with a firm bristle brush, and dry shampoo occasionally.

Bathe in mild soap only when necessary. A rub over with a chamois will make the coat gleam.

Inspect the feet and mouth for damage after work or exercise sessions. Keep the nails trimmed. This breed is an average shedder.

These are powerful working dogs with great stamina. They need to be taken for a daily, long walk or jog. In addition, they need plenty of opportunities to run free. Do not exercise them after meals. It is best to feed a dog after a long walk, as soon as it cools down.

This breed learns quickly but will get bored if the training is the same thing over and over again.

This breed needs firm, experienced training starting at puppyhood, with an owner who understands how to be a dog’s pack leader, or it can become stubborn and wilful.

Without this proper leadership, it can become combative with other dogs.

This hunting dog has a strong prey instinct and should not be trusted with small non-canine animals such as hamsters, rabbits and guinea pigs.

Socialized well with people, places, things and other animals. Brave, protective and loyal, the Weimaraner makes a good guard and watchdog.

Weimaraners absolutely crave leadership. They want to know what is expected of them and for how long. If this is not made consistently clear, they will not be stable minded, may be stressed, possibly developing separation anxiety, becoming destructive and restless.

Owners should not be harsh, but calm with a natural air of authority to their demeanour. These things are instinctually essential to having a happy, behaved, balanced dog.

Give your Weim plenty of extensive exercise, or he will become very restless and over-excited. Because this breed is so full of energy, the first thing it needs to learn is sit. This will help prevent jumping, as this is a strong dog and will knock over the elderly or children by accident.

This breed especially should not be hit to discipline, as they become wary easily. Once they have a fear of someone/something, they look to avoid and training is difficult. They are so eager to please and motivated by reward (food or praise) that once a trick is learned, the dog will leap to repeat for praise.

Spend a lot of time short-lead walking, by your side. If left to run ahead the Weimaraner will pull like a train and start to believe it is alpha, as pack leader goes first.

This breed likes to bark, and needs to be corrected if it becomes excessive.

Very hardy, with a good sense of smell, and a passionate worker, the Weimaraner can be used for all kinds of hunting.

He may become stubborn and sometimes dog aggressive.

These are not Tibetan Spaniel traits, but what is known as Small Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviours, where the dog believes it is the boss of the home. As soon as the humans take the control away from the dog, the behaviours will subside.

  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Welsh Terrier Dogs

Welsh Terrier

 KEY FACTS

The Welsh Terrier looks like a small version of the Airedale Terrier. The head is rectangular in appearance. The muzzle is half the length of the head with a slight stop. Teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. The small, almond-shaped eyes are set fairly wide apart and are dark brown in colour. The V-shaped ears fold slightly to the side of the head and forward. The front legs are straight and the round; small feet are cat-like. The back is level, forming a straight line. The coat is double with a soft undercoat and a wiry, hard, dense outer coat with bushy eyebrows, moustache and beard. Colours include black and tan and grizzle with a black jacket marking over the back. Puppies are born all black and as their coats lighten the jacket marking remains black.

Lifespan: 10 to 12 years

Height: Max. allowed 39 cm (15 inches)

Weight: 9 – 9.5 kg (20 – 21 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: See Description

Group: Terrier Group

Welsh Terriers will do okay in an apartment if they are sufficiently exercised. They are very active indoors and a small garden is sufficient.

The Welsh Terrier is a vigilant, active, cheerful dog that is affectionate and intelligent. Loving, devoted, playful and happy, it is usually patient with children and can withstand rough play. Curious, courageous, hardy, energetic and peppy, it is best suited to an active family.

The breed is several centuries old, is derived from the same selective stock as other German hunting breeds and is a descendant of the Bloodhound.

The Weimaraner is a good all-around hunting dog and an excellent pointer. It was originally used as a big-game hunter for bear, deer and wolves, but is used more today as a birddog and even a water retriever.

A Weimaraner appeared in a Van Dyck painting from the early 1600s.

Howard Knight, who founded the first American Weimaraner breed club, imported the dogs to the United States in 1929.

The popular children’s TV show Sesame Street has been known to play skits with this breed dressed up in human clothes. Some of its talents include: hunting, tracking, retrieving, pointing, watchdog, guarding, police work, service for the disabled, search and rescue and agility.

Prone to bloat; it is better to feed them two or three small meals a day rather than one large meal.

Also can be prone to hip dysplasia and hypertrophic osteodystrophy (excessive rapid growth). Also prone to mast cell tumours.

The smooth, shorthaired coat is easy to keep in peak condition.

Brush with a firm bristle brush, and dry shampoo occasionally.

Bathe in mild soap only when necessary. A rub over with a chamois will make the coat gleam.

Inspect the feet and mouth for damage after work or exercise sessions. Keep the nails trimmed. This breed is an average shedder.

These are powerful working dogs with great stamina. They need to be taken for a daily, long walk or jog. In addition, they need plenty of opportunities to run free. Do not exercise them after meals. It is best to feed a dog after a long walk, as soon as it cools down.

Welsh Terriers need plenty of exercise along with leadership, clearly knowing the rules of the home and what is expected of them. This structure is what makes a dog happy and well balanced. When a dog is lacking in this it can become timid and unsure. They can also possibly become dog-aggressive and stubborn as they make up their own rules.

They will not listen if they sense that they are stronger minded than their owner, however they will also not respond well to harsh discipline. Owners need to be calm, yet possess an air of natural authority. Socialize this breed well with people, places, dogs and other animals.

The Welsh Terrier has a slightly lower energy level than some of the other hunting terrier breeds. It likes to swim and dig. Some can be difficult to housebreak.

The Welsh Terrier is bright enough to understand quickly what you want of it, but if you are not a calm, assertive leader, it can be sly enough to try to divert you from your intentions.

Give these dogs constant variety in their training and remain consistent toward them. Remember to always be your dog’s pack leader.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CET = Club Español de Terriers(Spanish Terrier Club)
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Whippet Dogs

Whippet

 KEY FACTS

The Whippet is a medium-sized sighthound that looks similar to its cousin the Greyhound. The skull is long and lean with a fairly wide space between the ears. The muzzle is long with almost no stop, tapering to the nose. The nose is black, dark blue or dark brown, the latter two being so dark they look black. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The small, rose ears are held back, folded and are semi-perked when they are excited. The oval-shaped eyes are dark in colour. The front legs are straight and the feet are thick, either cat or hare like. The tail is long, tapering to a point. It is held low with a slight upward curve near the end, reaching to at least the hock. Dewclaws are sometimes removed. The short, smooth coat comes in all colours including brindle, black, red, fawn, tiger white or slate blue, either solid-coloured or mixed.

Lifespan: 12 to 15 years

Height: 47 – 56 cm (19 – 22 inches)

Weight: 11 – 21 kg (25 – 45 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: High

Colours: See Description

Group: Hound Group

This breed is sensitive to the cold. Wearing a coat is advised in the winter. These dogs will do okay in an apartment if they are sufficiently exercised. Whippets are calm indoors and a small garden will do.

The Whippet is intelligent, lively, affectionate, sweet and docile. This very devoted companion is quiet and calm in the home.

These dogs are good with children of all ages as long as the children do not play rough or tease the dog.

Whippets are clean, virtually odour free, easy to care for and easy to travel with.

They are good watchdogs and may be reserved with strangers.

They will pursue and kill cats and other small animals if given the opportunity, but are good with other dogs. Household cats that they are raised with and have become accustom to will be left alone.

The Whippet was developed at the end of the 19th century through crossing among the Greyhound, the Italian Greyhound, and another terrier type dog.

Its name derives from the expression “whip it,” meaning “to move quickly.”

The Whippet is an outstanding track racer over short distances, reaching speeds of up to 37 miles per hour (60 km per hour), reaching those speeds in seconds!

Coursing these dogs was an entertaining form of gambling for the lower classes in England and the Whippet was nicknamed “the poor man’s racehorse.” The Whippet was recognized by the English Kennel Club in 1891. Some of the Whippet’s talents include: hunting, sighting, watchdog, racing, agility and lure coursing.

Prone to stomach upset and skin problems.

The Whippet’s smooth, fine, shorthaired coat is easy to groom. A regular rub all over with a damp chamois will keep the coat gleaming.

Brush with a firm bristle brush, and bathe only when necessary. The coat of the Whippet is virtually free of “doggie odour.” This breed is an average shedder.

The Whippet kept as a pet should have regular opportunities to run free on open ground (in a safe area) as well as a brisk daily walk on a lead. It is a sighthound and will chase and kill small animals so an enclosed garden is essential.

The Whippet should never be roughly trained, for it is extremely sensitive, both physically and mentally. Be sure to introduce plenty of variety during training. The best results will be achieved by including games and running.

They can be used to hunt. The Whippet’s sweet personality makes him a fine companion dog.

The Whippet is the ultimate sprinter, unsurpassed by any other breed in its ability to accelerate to top speed and to twist and turn with matchless dexterity.

Some can be difficult to housebreak while others housebreak quickly. Make sure you are this dog’s firm, confident, consistent pack leader to avoid Small Dog Syndrome and behaviour problems. Always remember, dogs are canines, not humans. Be sure to meet their natural instincts as animals.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Yorkshire Terrier dogs

Yorkshire Terrier

 KEY FACTS

The Yorkshire Terrier is a small, toy-sized dog. The small head is rather flat on the top, with a medium-sized muzzle. The teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. The nose is black. The medium-sized eyes are dark with dark eye rims. The erect ears are V-shaped. All four legs are straight when viewed from the front. The round feet have black toenails. The long, glossy coat is fine and silky and falls straight down on either side. The coat comes in a steel blue and tan colour. The body and tail are blue and the rest of the dog is tan. Puppies are brown, black and tan. The hair on the head is so abundant that it is almost always necessary to gather it in a band to keep from going into the dog’s food bowl and to give the animal maximum visibility. Some owners choose to trim the hair on top of the head.

Lifespan: 12 to 15 years

Height: 15 – 17.5 cm (6- 7 inches)

Weight: 3.2 kg (7 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Low

Colours: Black and Tan

Group: Toy Group

The Yorkie is a good dog for apartment life. It is very active indoors and will do okay without a garden. The Yorkie is sensitive to the cold and prefers warm climates.

Yorkshire Terriers seem oblivious of their small size. They are very eager for adventure.

This little dog is highly energetic, brave, loyal and clever. With owners who take the time to understand how to treat a small dog, the Yorkie is a wonderful companion! It is affectionate with its master, but if humans are not this dog’s pack leader, it can become suspicious of strangers and aggressive to strange dogs and small animals. It can also become yappy, as the dog does their best to tell you what IT wants YOU to do.

The Yorkie was created by working men of north England, who developed the breed for catching the terrible rats and mice that infested clothing mills and mine shafts.

These hunting dogs could penetrate into badger and fox burrows.

The breed is not very old, but its origins are not entirely certain. However, it seems likely that Scotsmen seeking work in the woolen mills of Yorkshire brought with them various types of terrier, including the Skye Terrier, Dandie Dinmont, Manchester Terrier, Maltese and the now-extinct Clydesdale (Paisley Terrier). These were then crossed with local types, such as the longhaired Leeds Terrier.

At first, the Yorkie was a much bigger animal than the one we see today, but by selectively breeding the smallest individuals, the dog was gradually miniaturized over the years. It was made into a fashion dog. Women carried these little dogs in their bags and under their arms.

In 1984 a piebald Yorkie was born as a result of a genetic recessive gene occurrence from two Yorkshire Terriers. Today the piebald dogs are considered a different breed which is named the Biewer or Biewer Yorkie.

Some Yorkies are prone to slipped stifle, bronchitis, eye infections, early tooth decay, poor tolerance of aesthetic, and delicate digestion.

Exotic treats should be avoided.

They sometimes suffer paralysis in the hindquarters caused by herniated disks and other problems of the spine.

Falls or knocks can cause fractures of fragile bones.

Abnormal skull formations in Yorkies measuring less than 8 inches (20 cm).

Dams often have trouble delivering puppies and sometimes need to have caesareans. Be sure to feed Yorkies some type of dry food or bone to chew on to help keep their teeth clean and strong. They should get their teeth cleaned at the vet to keep them from falling out and creating infection.

Regular grooming is needed. A clipped coat needs daily to weekly combing and brushing. Topknot is usually tied back with ribbon. Full show coats need hours of grooming and pet owners usually choose to clip them short, giving them a shaggy look. They should have their teeth cleaned regularly. This breed sheds little to no hair.

These are active little dogs that need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, it will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behaviour problems. If your Yorkie zooms around the house like a speeding bullet, it is a sign that he needs to go on more/longer walks where he is made to heel beside or behind the human. Remember, in a dog’s mind, the leader leads the way. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large, fenced-in garden.

It has a true terrier heritage and needs someone who understands how to be its leader. Yorkies are often only recommended for older, considerate children, simply because they are so small, most people allow them to get away with behaviours no dog should display. This changes the dog’s temperament, as the dog starts to take over the house (Small Dog Syndrome). Yorkies that become demanding and dependent, appearing to need a lot of human attention and/or developing jealous behaviours, snapping if surprised, frightened or over-teased, have owners who need to rethink how they are treating the dog.

Owners who do not instinctually meet the dog’s needs may also find them to become overprotective and become neurotic.

Yorkies are easy to train, although they can sometimes be stubborn if owners do not give the dog proper boundaries.

They can be difficult to housebreak.

The Yorkie is an excellent watchdog.

When owners display pack leadership to the Yorkshire Terrier, it is very sweet and loving and can be trusted with children.

The problems only arise when owners, because of the dog’s cute little size, allow it to take over the house. The human will not even realize it; however, know if you have any of the negative behaviours listed above, it’s time to look into your pack leader skills. These are truly sweet little dogs that need owners who understand how to give them gentle leadership. If you own a Yorkie that does not display any of the negative behaviours, high-five for being a good pack leader!

They can be used to hunt. The Whippet’s sweet personality makes him a fine companion dog.

The Whippet is the ultimate sprinter, unsurpassed by any other breed in its ability to accelerate to top speed and to twist and turn with matchless dexterity.

Some can be difficult to housebreak while others housebreak quickly. Make sure you are this dog’s firm, confident, consistent pack leader to avoid Small Dog Syndrome and behaviour problems. Always remember, dogs are canines, not humans. Be sure to meet their natural instincts as animals.

  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • ACR = American Canine Registry