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Are you looking for a new dog but are unsure of which breed best suits your lifestyle? Well, you’ve come to the right place. Simply search the breed you are interested in and see all the important details you need to know before choosing your new best friend. Once you have decided, take a look at our listings HERE.

Affenpinscher Dogs

Affenpinscher Dogs

 KEY FACTS

The Affenpinscher is a small dog with a shaggy, wirey coat. The hair on the face is longer than the rest of the body giving it a distinct look. It has a square body, with a moderately broad, deep chest. The head is round with a pronounced stop, which is the transition area from the skull to the muzzle. The lower jaw is undershot and broad enough for the lower teeth to be straight and even, protruding below the dog’s short nose. The prominent, round eyes are black. The neck is short and arched and the limbs are straight and well boned. The tail is carried high and docked to two-thirds its length. The hairy ears are customarily docked, pointed and erect, however some countries have banned docking of animal’s tails and ears. The undercoat is slightly curly.

Lifespan:  12- 15 years

Height: 25-38cm (10-15 inches)

Weight: 3-4Kg (7-10 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Active

Colours: Black, grey, silver, tan

Group: Toy

 

The Affenpinscher will manage well in an apartment. They are very active indoors and will make do without a garden. These dogs are sensitive to temperature extremes. Overly warm living conditions are damaging to the coat.

The Affenpinscher is very much like a terrier in personality. They get on well with other pets if they have been raised together. They are active, brave, nosey and quite stubborn, but they also love to cavort around, being playful and mischievous. A lively, clever little dog that is dauntless hero. A fearless defender, the Affenpinscher will quickly become an authoritarian if owners do not give the proper rules, boundaries, limitations and constantly be this dog’s pack leader. This friendly little dog enjoys being with its family. It needs consistent, firm training. However, do make sure there is some variety in the training, so the dog doesn’t become bored. They learn commands very quickly. Some may be difficult to house train. Children should be taught how to properly handle a dog. Owners need to consistently be the dog’s pack leader to avoid the tendency to guard their food and toys.

Without leadership, they may unwisely challenge large dogs and other large animals. They tend to bark and even climb. This little dog does best with a family who likes entertainment and has a particularly good sense of humour. Any dog who displays growling, snapping or biting is lacking in pack leadership. These issues can be corrected as soon as the humans take control back from the dog.

The Affenpinscher is an Ancient dog breed believed to originate from Germany. Affenpinscher translates as “monkey-terrier” in German, which comes from their monkey-like appearance. Affenpinschers were originally somewhat larger dogs that were once used to hunt rats in homes and around farms. They were bred down in size over the years, becoming more of a companion dog, but much of the hunter’s instinct still remains.

Affenpinschers first gained a breed standard with the Berlin Lapdog Club in 1913 but mostly interest was lost during World War II. Breeding was revived in the 1950s but today the Affenpinscher remains a rare dog. Although not recognised by The Kennel Club UK, they are recognised by the National Kennel Club with which The Kennel Club UK has a reciprocal agreement.

Responsible breeders strive to maintain the highest breed standards as established by kennel clubs like The Kennel Club UK. Dogs bred by these standards are less likely to inherit health conditions. However, some hereditary health problems can occur in the breed, such as Brachycephalic syndrome.

Some are prone to fractures, slipped stifle, PDA (patent ductus arteriosus), open fontanel and respiratory problems in hot weather.

The Affenpinscher’s harsh coat should never be clipped short because this ruins the coat for many years. It should be brushed and combed weekly and it may be necessary to pluck it. A dog groomer usually does this but it is possible to learn how to do it yourself. Hair sometimes grows in the corners of the eyes, causing irritation; they should be dealt with promptly. This breed sheds little to no hair.

The Affenpinscher need to walk every day. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfil their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behaviour problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe open area off lead, such as a large fenced-in garden or field. Teach them to enter and exit door and gateways after you.

The Affenpinscher is a curious, intelligent dog that can have a stubborn and feisty streak. Firm and consistent obedience training and proper socialization are essential. This practice will help you fine-tune the breed’s natural talents as a loyal watchdog and hunter.

You will need to socialize an Affenpinscher from a young age as they are naturally suspicious of strangers. While most are not problem barkers, an Affenpinscher can take a while to settle down and stop yelping once triggered.

  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • APRI = America’s Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Federation Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
Afghan Hound dogs

Afghan Hound Dogs

 KEY FACTS

The Afghan Hound belongs to the sighthound group. Tall, svelte with a long, narrow, refined head and powerful jaws, the back part of the head and skull are quite prominent. The muzzle is slightly convex and the nose is black. The Afghan has little or no stop, which is the transition area from skull to muzzle. The teeth should meet in a level or scissors bite. The dark eyes are almond shaped. The ears lie flat to the head. The neck is long and strong. The height at the withers should be almost level and the abdomen well tucked up. The hipbones are quite prominent. The front legs are strong and straight and the feet, large and covered with long hair. The tail has a curl or ring at the tip but is not carried over the back.

Lifespan:  12- 14 years

Height: 63-73cm (25-29 inches)

Weight: 22-34Kg (50-64 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: Moderate

Colours: Black, blue, black and silver, blue and cream, red, silver, cream, black and tan, and white.

Group: Sighthound

The Afghan Hound is not recommended for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors however should have plenty of enclosed outdoor space for running.

Courageous, dignified, spirited, sweet, loyal, affectionate and sensitive, with a low dominance level, the Afghan can be somewhat aloof, but socialize well. They must be trained kindly yet in a calm and firm manner. The Afghan has been described as “a king of dogs”—noble, majestic and elegant. They tend to be suspicious of those they do not know, but not hostile. Although tough, they will pine if they are deprived of proper gentle leadership. They will do best with older, considerate children who understand how to be a gentle pack leader. Amenable to training and discipline, they can be disobedient if an owner does not give the dog clear guidelines and consistency with what is expected of their dog. This breed can be difficult to house train. It can also be timid and high-strung if it does not receive enough mental and physical exercise.

This is a very elegant, ancient dog, native to Sinai, and mentioned several times in Egyptian papyruses as well as pictured in the caves of northern Afghanistan more than 4000 years ago. The breed was kept pure for centuries, and its exportation was always prohibited. It therefore only reached Europe as contraband early in the 1900s. An extremely fast and agile runner, the Afghan is a sighthound, which means it hunts by sight. It was used as a shepherd and as a hunter of many types of game including deer, wild goats, snow leopards and wolves. They were also used by shepherds as herders and watchdogs. Their thick coat protects against temperature extremes. In Europe and America, they have become a luxurious pet and show dog because of their aristocratic beauty. Some of the Afghan’s talents are hunting, sighting, tracking, herding, watchdog, racing and lure coursing.

Responsible breeders strive to maintain the highest breed standards as established by kennel clubs like The Kennel Club UK. Dogs bred by these standards are less likely to inherit health conditions. However, some hereditary health problems can occur in the breed, such as:

Myelopathy

Medial canthal pocket syndrome

Perianal Gland Tumours

Lung disease

Hypothyroidism

Panosteitis

Laryngeal paralysis

The Afghan Hound has a coat that requires regular bathing and brushing.  Keeping the Afghan Hound clean, conditioned, and mat free is the key to a beautiful coat. It is highly recommended that the Afghan gets a bath weekly.  The most important thing when bathing this breed is to be very thorough.  Sink your fingers deep into the coat while massaging the shampoo into the coat making sure every part of the coat is shampooed and rinsed thoroughly.  A Curry Comb with cylinder type teeth is also a great way to help the shampoo penetrate the long, silky coat.  Once you have rinsed the coat, it is a great idea to do an extra rinse cooling the water temperature down slightly to make certain all product is removed.  The same application applies to conditioning the coat.  Never brush a dry and/or dirty coat.  Spend several hours per week brushing the coat.  Make sure you use a hydrating spray to lightly moisten the coat, so it does not break and become damaged.

Afghan Hounds require plenty of exercise. They should exercise at least 30 minutes a day, if not more. They enjoy long walks, but also running fast. A great way to exercise your Afghan is to let them freely run in an enclosed or fenced area.

Afghan Hounds can have a stubborn nature but can certainly be trained. The best way to train an Afghan is with a gentle hand. They do not respond well to punishments and can become unresponsive when more aggressive training methods are used.

Patience is certainly required to train your Afghan Hound. It can be a fun challenge, though, to work with your dog and help them master certain commands. Positive reinforcement is the most helpful method of training them.

Be sure to make training a habit. If you want to successfully train your Afghan, you should make training a daily habit. The more you work with them, the more they will learn.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • APRI = America’s Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Federation Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Aidi Dog breed

Aidi Dogs

 KEY FACTS

The Aidi is lean and muscular. It has a heavy plumed tail and medium-sized ears that are tipped forward. Its jaws are strong with tight black or brown lips. The eyes are medium with a dark colour and dark rims. The Aidi has a tapered muzzle with a black or brown nose that usually matches the coat. The coat of the Aidi is course, thick and weather resistant.

Lifespan:  11- 13 years

Height: 53-61 cm (21-24 inches)

Weight: 23-25Kg (50-55 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: black, white, black and white, tawny and pale red.

Group: Watchdog

Aidi are not recommended for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with a minimum of a 1/4 acre and at least a 5′ tall fence. They should live in a semi-rural or rural setting. This breed is quiet and clean in the house.

Energetic and highly protective, the Aidi is a flock guard, used to protect herds of sheep and goats. It also makes a good hunting and scent dog, which is typical of a mountain dog. It is powerful, agile, alert and ready for action. It makes a very good guard and watchdog, however, is not a breed for everyone. It needs an owner who knows how to remain alpha, and it needs a job to do, preferably as a guard or flock herder. As a sensitive breed, the dog should receive kind yet firm training.

The Aidi is recognized as coming from Morocco, where it was used to defend its owner and property from wild animals. It probably originated in the Sahara. The dog has never worked as a sheepdog even though the 1963 standard was published under the name Atlas Sheepdog; this was corrected in 1969.

Aidi’s do not have any recorded health problems

The coat is easy to groom and needs little attention. Brush occasionally with a firm bristle brush and bathe only when necessary. This breed is an average shedder.

The Aidi needs regular exercise. It should be taken for long daily walks.

Aidi’s are quick learners but independent thinkers. In other words, he is fairly easy to train only if you are able to get him invested into the whole process. This can be a problem considering how independent and headstrong this dog is. That is why it is important to display yourself as a pack leader which is both firm and gentle. The key to success is to start training a puppy at an age of 7-9 weeks. To motivate him for the training, prepare some tasty treats and try to be patient and calm as much as possible. Positive reinforcement techniques work best with this dog, so remember to never shout or bully him. Lessons should be short and fun. The more demanding commands should be gradually added into the mix.

  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
Ainu Dogs

Ainu Dogs

 KEY FACTS

The Ainu is a thin, muscular, sturdy-looking dog. It is impulsive, fast and has a light gait. Ainu’s have small, erect ears that are at a right angle to the brow. Its eyes are somewhat small, dark brown and set triangularly. The teeth are healthy and non-protruding. Some have spots of black on their tongues. The bridge is straight leading to its dark nose. The well-fitted lips have dark pigmentation. The tail curls in typical Spitz fashion. The forelegs are straight and lean, and the hindquarters are covered with a double coat.

Lifespan:  11- 13 years

Height: 46-56cm (18-22 inches)

Weight: 20-30Kg (45-65 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: Sesame, brindle, wolf grey, red, brown or white

Group: Guard dog

The Ainu is not recommended for apartment life. It is moderately active indoors yet will do best with a large garden. They can also live outdoors, as their warm coats protect them from the cold.

The Ainu has proven a fearless and determined hunter, watchdog, guard and defender, and at the same time, a loyal and well-behaved dog. They have also been used as sled dogs and scenting hounds and can be trained for defence. It is intelligent and quickly trained. This large game hunter is extremely courageous for its size, willing to attack a 650-pound bear! Yet it is still gentle and obedient. It has an innate sense of direction and can therefore return to its master no matter how great the distance. If its owners do not display true pack leader qualities it can become headstrong, stubborn and aggressive with other dogs. They need owners who understand what it means to be a leader. Despite its long history as a working breed, the Ainu Dog ideally combines the roles of family pet and hunter. This breed should not be allowed to run free around other animals. They are good with children if they are raised with them from puppyhood and/or properly socialized. Children should be taught how to display leadership skills, and the dog should be taught to respect the child.

The Ainu is a Japanese Spitz breed rarely seen outside the country of Japan. The dog was named after the Ainu tribe. The origin is unknown. They arrived in Japan over 3,000 years ago when the Ainu tribe brought this Spitz-type dog with them. As the Ainu were pushed onto the island of Hokkaido by an influx of Japanese people, their dogs gradually became restricted to this island. The dog’s alert and suspicious nature lent itself to the required role of village guardian. Their dog has changed little over the centuries. The Ainu Dog is probably the oldest of the Japanese breeds. It was later named the Hokkaido Dog, but is still better known as the Ainu Dog. Many Ainu Dogs have blue-black tongues, a physical trait that suggests a distant relationship with the similarly tongued Chow Chow and Shar Pei. Through the active work of the Society For The Preservation of Japanese Breeds, the Ainu Dog was designated a Japanese Natural Monument in 1937. The Ainu Dog has always distinguished itself in big-game hunting (especially bears), in guarding property, and as a draft animal.

Ainu’s are prone to injuries because of their hyperactive nature.

Collie eye anomaly

Hip dysplasia

Luxating patella

Heart murmurs

Idiopathic seizures

The harsh, straight, double coat of the Ainu Dog should be brushed and combed on a regular basis.

The Ainu needs moderate but regular exercise to stay in shape. It should be taken for long daily walks.

Ainu’s are quick learners but independent thinkers. In other words, he is fairly easy to train only if you are able to get him invested into the whole process. This can be a problem considering how independent and headstrong this dog is. That is why it is important to display yourself as a pack leader which is both firm and gentle. Ainu is primarily recommended for experienced owners. In skillful hands, this intelligent dog can easily learn and remember even the most complex commands. The key to success is to start training a puppy at an age of 7-9 weeks. To motivate him for the training, prepare some tasty treats and try to be patient and calm as much as possible. Positive reinforcement techniques work best with this dog, so remember to never shout or bully him. Lessons should be short and fun. The more demanding commands should be gradually added into the mix.

  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • ACA = American Canine Association  Inc.
Airedale Terrier

Airedale Terrier Dogs

 KEY FACTS

The Airedale Terrier is the largest of the terriers and stands square in appearance. The skull is about the same length as the muzzle, with a very slight stop that is hard to see. The head is long and flat. The nose is black. The teeth should meet in a level, vice-like or scissor bite. The small eyes are dark in colour. The V-shaped ears fold slightly to the side of the head and forward. The chest is deep. The topline of the back is level. The front legs are perfectly straight. The tail is set high on the back. The double coat has a hard, dense and wiry outer coat with a soft undercoat. The head and ears should be tan, with the ears being a slightly darker shade of tan. The legs, thighs, elbows and the under part of the body and chest are also tan, sometimes running into the shoulder. In some lines there is a small white blaze on the chest. The back of the dog, sides and upper parts of the body should be black or dark grizzle in colour.

Lifespan:  10- 13 years

Height: 56-61cm (22-24 inches)

Weight: 23-29Kg (50-65 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: tan and black and tan and grizzle

Group: Hunting dog

The Airedale Terrier is not recommended for apartment life. They are very active indoors and will do best with a large garden and longer daily walks.

The Airedale Terrier will usually do okay with children if they have early exposure and socialization, however they may play too rough for the smaller ones. Courageous and protective. Fairly friendly with strangers. Intelligent, pleasant and loyal. Sensitive and responsive, he can be obedience trained at a high level. Airedale Terriers are fun-loving and playful when they are puppies. Airedales will be happy to please you if there is nothing more pressing in the environment (chipmunk, other dog, food). They are naturally lively and can be very rowdy if they do not receive enough daily mental and physical exercise. The Airedale Terrier may have dominance challenges toward family members he sees as submissive. This can lead to wilfulness and disobedience. They are not difficult to train, but they do not respond to harsh, overbearing training methods. Try to give it some variety to its training, making the exercise a challenge. They need a calm, but firm, confident and consistent handler. This breed generally gets along well with household cats and other animals, but they sometimes try to dominate other dogs. This depends on the way the humans around the dog treat him, their training and the individual dog.

The first Airedales looked completely different from the Airedales of today. They were originally known as the Waterside and Bingley Terriers, descended from the now extinct black-and-tan type terrier. The breed was later crossed with the Otterhound to make him a better swimmer. It is also said to have Manchester Terrier in its blood. They were developed about a hundred years ago in the county of York from the ancient Working Terrier. The Airedale is often called “The King of Terriers.” The breed was used as a vermin hunter and was named for the Valley of the Aire in England, which was heavily populated with small game. In addition to his role as a small game hunter, the Airedale has been used to hunt big game in India, Africa and Canada. The breed was also used as a wartime guard in World War II. Today the Airedale is primarily a companion dog, but there are still working lines out there. Some of the Airedale’s talents are guarding, watchdog, hunting, rodent control, tracking, military work, police work and competitive obedience.

A very hardy breed, although some may suffer from eye problems, hip dysplasia and skin infections. If your Airedale Terrier has dry skin, he should be fed an adjusted omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in the diet.

Airedales have a hard, short-haired, double coat. The hair should be plucked about twice a year, but for dogs that are to be shown, much more intensive grooming is needed. Trim excessive hair between the pads of the feet when necessary. If you keep the coat stripped it will shed little to no hair. Burrs stick in the coat and beard and the beard should be washed daily because of food residue. Airedale Terriers can be good for some allergy sufferers.

Airedales were bred for active work, and therefore need plenty of exercise. They need to be taken for long daily walks. Most of them love to play with a ball, swim or retrieve objects and once fully grown will happily run alongside a bicycle. Without enough attention and exercise the Airedale Terrier will become restless and bored and will usually get itself into trouble. The exercise requirement can go down somewhat after the first two years (as with many dogs) but the first two years with an Airedale are very strenuous on the human. Then they start to get mellower.

Training and socialization are essential for the Airedale, beginning with puppy classes. … In general, Airedales do very well with most training as long as you remember that they have a mind of their own.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • APRI = America’s Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • CET = Club Español de Terriers (Spanish Terrier Club)
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Federation Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Akita (Japanese) Dog breed

Akita (Japanese) Dogs

 KEY FACTS

The largest of the Spitz-type breeds, the Japanese Akita, is a powerful, solid, well-proportioned and distinctive looking dog. Strong and muscular with a flat, heavy head and strong, short muzzle, the Akita has a deep, broad chest and a level back. The dog is slightly longer than he is tall. The head is triangular shaped, broad and blunt. The ears are small and erect, carried forward and in line with the neck. The dark brown eyes are small and triangular in shape. The nose is broad and black. Brown is permitted on white Akitas, but black is preferred. The lips are black, and the tongue is pink. The teeth are strong and should meet in a scissor or level bite. The tail is plush and carried over the dog’s back. The webbed feet are cat-like. The Akita is double coated. The outer coat is harsh and waterproof. The undercoat is thick and soft, providing nice insulation for the dog in cold weather.

Lifespan:  11- 15 years

Height: 61-66cm (24-26 inches)

Weight: 34-54Kg (75-120 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: white, red, sesame, brindle and fawn

Group: Working dog

The Japanese Akita Inu will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. It is moderately active indoors and will do best with a large garden.

The Akita is docile, intelligent, courageous and fearless. Careful and very affectionate with its family. Sometimes spontaneous, it needs a firm, confident, consistent pack leader. Without it, the dog will be very wilful and may become very aggressive to other dogs and animals. It needs firm training as a puppy. The objective in training this dog is to achieve a pack leader status. It is a natural instinct for a dog to have an order in its pack. When we humans live with dogs, we become their pack. The entire pack cooperates under a single leader.

Lines are clearly defined. You and all other humans MUST be higher up in the order than the dog. That is the only way your relationship can be a success. If the dog is allowed to believe he is the leader over the humans he may become very food-possessive as he tells the humans to wait their turn. He eats first. Considered a first-class guard dog in Japan, Japanese mothers would often leave their children in the family Akita’s care. They are extremely loyal and thrive on firm leadership from their handlers. They should definitely be supervised with other household pets and children. Although the breed may tolerate and be good with children from his own family, if you do not teach this dog he is below all humans in the pack order he may not accept other children and if teased, Akitas may bite. Children must be taught to display leadership qualities and at the same time respect the dog. With the right type of owner, the proper amount of daily mental and physical exercise and firm training, they can make a fine pet. Obedience training requires patience, as these dogs tend to get bored quickly. The Akita needs to be with its family. It vocalizes with many interesting sounds, but it is not an excessive barker.

The (Japanese) Akita Inu is native to the island of Honshu in the region of Akita in Japan, where it has remained unchanged for centuries. The Akita Inu is considered a national dog of Japan and is one of seven breeds designated as a Natural Monument.

The breed has had many uses, such as police and military work, a guard dog (government and civilian), a fighting dog, a hunter of bear and deer and a sled dog. The Akita Inu is a versatile hunting dog, able to hunt in inclement weather. The Akita’s soft mouth makes it possible for him to work as a waterfowl retrieval dog.

The dog is considered sacred and a good luck charm in the country of Japan. Small statues of the Akita Inu are often given to new parents after babies are born as a gesture of good health and to sick people as a gesture of a speedy recovery. In 1937 the first Akita, who was named Kamikaze-go was brought to the United States by Helen Keller. The dog was a gift given to her during her trip to Akita Prefecture. Kamikaze-go died of canine distemper not long after she adopted him. In July of 1938 another Akita named Kenzan-go, who was the older brother of her first Akita, was given to her as an official gift from the Japanese government.

After World War II many serviceman brought Akita Inu dogs to the USA.

Prone to hip dysplasia, both hypothyroid and autoimmune thyroiditis, immune diseases like VKH and Pemphigus, skin problems like Sebaceous Adenitis and Progressive Retinal Atrophy

Akita Inu should be brushed weekly to stimulate healthy coat and skin. Brushing will remove the old hair and stimulate new. An Akita that isn’t ‘blowing’ their coat generally keeps it well, you won’t find much that has come out, but a weekly brushing will avoid that and you will practically have a fur free home!

Akita Inu will need a minimum of two hours of exercise every day – this can be spent running and walking. On top of this, they will also enjoy playing in a large, secure garden with plenty of training so they can keep their brain active. Akitas tend to love water so many also enjoy a swim every now and again.

The motivation for your Akita Inu to learn is praise delivered in a pleasant tone of voice, pack behaviour, food and games. Remember this throughout the whole akita training course.

Akita do not understand our language, even though many owners assume they do. You can be sure that if your Akita seems to be making errors, the fault lies with the trainer who is not communicating the message clearly enough. When training an Akita to do something, make sure that your voice is clear, and your tone is firm.

When teaching, the dog may begin to lose interest, so get him to do an activity he likes and can achieve, praise him for it and finish training, play short game, and try again later in the day.

The training lessons should be short as possible. Start with 10 minutes at first and the gradually – if your Akita is not losing interest – extend the lessons. Many short are more useful than 1 long one.

Train when your Akita is alert, because tired dogs or dogs which have just eaten don’t do well.

And the last one of akita training tips: avoid making repetitive commands. Repeating ‘down’ 10 times does not help. Keeping silent between commands helps the Akitas to differentiate between the sounds and understand what you want.

  • APRI = America’s Pet Registry, Inc.
  • ACA = Akita Club of America
  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
Akita (US) dog breeds

Akita (US) Dogs

 KEY FACTS

There are two types of Akitas, the original Japanese Akita breed and now a separate designation for American standard Akitas. The weights and sizes are different and the American standard allows a black mask, whereas the original Japanese breed standard does not allow for a black mask. 

American Akitas and Japanese Akita differ in their head and eye structure. The American Akita has a broad head and small, deep-set eyes, rather resembling a bear. Conversely, the Japanese Akita, has a fox-like face and almond shaped eyes.

Body shape also differs with the two breeds. The American Akita has a stocky, muscular body with big bones and the Japanese Akita appears to have a slimmer build.

Lifespan:  11- 15 years

Height: 32-60cm (24-28 inches)

Weight: 34-54Kg (70-130 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: black, white, chocolate, bicolour and brindle

Group: Working dog

Unlike most other medium- to large-sized dogs, the American Akita does surprisingly well in an apartment. Due to its moderate energy level, low level of barking, and high level of independence, this breed can adapt well to small spaces. Just be sure to provide sufficient mental and physical stimulation outside of the apartment to maintain your dog’s health.

The Akita is docile, intelligent, courageous and fearless. Careful and very affectionate with its family. Sometimes spontaneous, it needs a firm, confident, consistent pack leader. Without it, the dog will be very wilful and may become very aggressive to other dogs and animals. It needs firm training as a puppy. The objective in training this dog is to achieve a pack leader status. It is a natural instinct for a dog to have an order in its pack. When we humans live with dogs, we become their pack. The entire pack cooperates under a single leader. Lines are clearly defined. You and all other humans MUST be higher up in the order than the dog. That is the only way your relationship can be a success. If the dog is allowed to believe he is the leader over the humans he may become very food-possessive as he tells the humans to wait their turn. He eats first. Considered a first-class guard dog in Japan, Japanese mothers would often leave their children in the family Akita’s care. They are extremely loyal and thrive on firm leadership from their handlers. They should definitely be supervised with other household pets and children. Although the breed may tolerate and be good with children from his own family, if you do not teach this dog he is below all humans in the pack order he may not accept other children and if teased, Akitas may bite. Children must be taught to display leadership qualities and at the same time respect the dog. With the right type of owner, the proper amount of daily mental and physical exercise and firm training, they can make a fine pet. Obedience training requires patience, as these dogs tend to get bored quickly. The Akita needs to be with its family. It vocalizes with many interesting sounds, but it is not an excessive barker.

The Akita Inu is native to the island of Honshu in the region of Akita in Japan, where it has remained unchanged for centuries. The Akita Inu is considered a national dog of Japan and is one of seven breeds designated as a Natural Monument. 

The breed has had many uses, such as police and military work, a guard dog (government and civilian), a fighting dog, a hunter of bear and deer and a sled dog. The Akita Inu is a versatile hunting dog, able to hunt in inclement weather. The Akita’s soft mouth makes it possible for him to work as a waterfowl retrieval dog. 

The dog is considered sacred and a good luck charm in the country of Japan. Small statues of the Akita Inu are often given to new parents after babies are born as a gesture of good health and to sick people as a gesture of a speedy recovery. In 1937 the first Akita, who was named Kamikaze-go was brought to the United States by Helen Keller. The dog was a gift given to her during her trip to Akita Prefecture. Kamikaze-go died of canine distemper not long after she adopted him. In July of 1938 another Akita named Kenzan-go, who was the older brother of her first Akita, was given to her as an official gift from the Japanese government. 

After World War II many serviceman brought Akita Inu dogs to the USA. 

Prone to hip dysplasia, both hypothyroid and autoimmune thyroiditis, immune diseases like VKH and Pemphigus, skin problems like Sebaceous Adenitis and Progressive Retinal Atrophy

Akitas should be brushed weekly to stimulate healthy coat and skin. Brushing will remove the old hair and stimulate new. An Akita that isn’t ‘blowing’ their coat generally keeps it well, you won’t find much that has come out, but a weekly brushing will avoid that and you will practically have a fur free home!

Akita Inu will need a minimum of two hours of exercise every day – this can be spent running and walking. On top of this, they will also enjoy playing in a large, secure garden with plenty of training so they can keep their brain active. Akitas tend to love water so many also enjoy a swim every now and again.

The motivation for your Akita Inu to learn is praise delivered in a pleasant tone of voice, pack behaviour, food and games. Remember this throughout the whole akita training course.

Akita do not understand our language, even though many owners assume they do. You can be sure that if your Akita seems to be making errors, the fault lies with the trainer who is not communicating the message clearly enough. When training an Akita to do something, make sure that your voice is clear, and your tone is firm.

When teaching, the dog may begin to lose interest, so get him to do an activity he likes and can achieve, praise him for it and finish training, play short game, and try again later in the day.

The training lessons should be short as possible. Start with 10 minutes at first and the gradually – if your Akita is not losing interest – extend the lessons. Many short are more useful than 1 long one.

Train when your Akita is alert, because tired dogs or dogs which have just eaten don’t do well.

And the last one of akita training tips: avoid making repetitive commands. Repeating ‘down’ 10 times does not help. Keeping silent between commands helps the Akitas to differentiate between the sounds and understand what you want.

  • APRI = America’s Pet Registry, Inc.
  • ACA = Akita Club of America
  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
Alaskan Klee Kai dogs

Alaskan Klee Kai Dogs

 KEY FACTS

The Klee Kai can do just about anything Huskies can do, including racing through the snow! However their small size makes them a companion dog, rather than a working dog.

Their primary purpose is to be a miniature Husky for those who may not be ready to take on the demands of a larger dog. These beautiful dogs have the Husky’s gorgeous coat and wolf-like face.

They are not going to be your best friend right away, and will need encouragement to settle in.

Once they do learn to love you, they won’t want to be with anyone else. They will want you to join them in all of their favourite games and activities.

Lifespan:  12- 16 years

Height: 33-38cm (13-15 inches)

Weight: 7-10Kg (15-22 pounds)

Size: Miniature

Energy: High

Colours: black and white, grey and white, and red and white

Group: Companion dog

Klee kai are ideal for owners who want a small, active dog that does not require a large garden and can be content with walks and games of fetch. Klee Kai do not do well left alone for long periods. Anyone who cannot tolerate dog hair and shedding should consider another breed. Klee kai are long-lived, with claims of 15 to 20 years not unusual.

Alaskan Klee Kais shed, bark and have a high energy level, therefore not making them ideal choices for everyone. Without the proper amount of daily and physical exercise they can become high strung. However, if in an appropriate home, the Klee Kai can be a wonderful companion. They are friendly but somewhat reserved with strangers. Socialize well. Docile and very loving, they need the humans around them to be calm but firm, confident and consistent pack leaders. Do not allow the Alaskan Klee Kai to develop Small Dog Syndrome. Remember this is a challenging breed to handle, and their anxiety may be a bit alarming to those used to friendly dogs.

The Alaskan Klee Kai is one of the “youngest” dog breeds around, tracing its origins back to a single woman, Linda Spurlin, who worked to create a companion-sized Husky starting during the 1970s after spotting what looked like a miniature Husky in Oklahoma.

Rather than breeding extra-small or dwarf Huskies to create a small breed (practices that often result in unhealthy dogs), Spurlin “outcrossed” Huskies with smaller breeds like Schipperkes and Alaskan Eskimo Dogs. Spurlin originally called the breed simply “Klee Kai,” which means “little dog” in the Inuit language. In 1995, the name was changed to Alaskan Klee Kai.

This breed is still considered a rare breed. The United Kennel Club recognized the Alaskan Klee Kai in 1997.

From day one, the purpose of the Alaskan Klee Kai has been to be a cute, active companion for owners. Unlike the majority of older dog breeds, these little dogs were never meant to be hunters, farm dogs, guard dogs, or anything other than a companion. However, that doesn’t mean that they don’t enjoy “work” in the form of barking at strangers and training games!

The Alaskan Klee Kai has grown in popularity as people notice the appeal of a smart, active dog. This has led to some less-than-skilled breeders selling poorly bred puppies with pinched faces and bulging eyes that look more like fluffy Chihuahuas than miniature Huskies. Supporting a good breeder is important to keep this relatively rare breed healthy going forward.

While they look just like miniature Siberian Huskies, Alaskan Klee Kai’s are not just shrunken Huskies. They can also be easily confused with the designer mixed breed “Pomsky,” a cross between a Pomeranian and a Husky. Alaskan Klee Kai were created by mixing Huskies with smaller, but similar-looking breeds such as Schipperkes and American Eskimo Dogs.

This resulted in a tiny dog that looks like a miniature Husky but has additional traits (like the Schipperke’s desire to hunt mice) in the gene pool. All three of the breeds involved in Alaskan Klee Kais are bark-happy, thick-furred, curly-tailed, and pointy-eared. This breed is remarkably consistent in looks, despite being relatively new to the world.

The Alaskan Klee Kai is a relatively healthy dog breed, probably due to its mixed-breed heritage. Rare breeds often end up quite inbred because there just aren’t many potential breeders around. The Alaskan Klee Kai is vulnerable to conditions such as: 

Luxating patellas: Occurs when a dog’s kneecap dislocates from its normal position.

Liver shunt: A condition in which the dog’s body isn’t using its liver to process toxins.

Cataracts: Occurs when the eye’s lens clouds and blocks vision.

Some of these problems are best avoided by finding a good breeder and ensuring that they do appropriate health testing. Once your dog is already in your home, you can ensure it lives a long and healthy life by focusing on consistent exercise and feeding high-quality food.

Alaskan Klee Kai grooming takes a moderate amount of work overall. These dogs shed a fair amount for most of the year, and more heavily during the spring and autumn, so they’ll mostly need brushing 1-2 times per week. 

Brushing: A pin brush will work well on these dogs; a good 2-in-1 comb will come in handy as well. To brush: first wet the coat with mist from a spray bottle, then starting at the shoulders, use the typical line brushing technique to go over the entire coat, moving in the direction of hair growth. If you encounter a tangle or mat (which only really happens with longer-coated Klee Kais), first try to work it out with your fingers, then continue working through it with the comb. 

Bathing: Klee Kai’s can be bathed in either a bathtub or in an outdoor kiddie pool using a garden hose. Bathe as follows: first give the dog a thorough brushing, then wet the coat completely; apply a small amount of dog shampoo to the dog’s back, then lather well, working downward as you go. Lather up the legs, underbelly, and tail, then finish by using a washcloth to clean the head, ears, and face, making sure to avoid getting soap in the dog’s eyes. Rinse completely, towel-dry, then give the coat another brush-through to make it look clean and neat.

That said, owners of longer-haired Klee Kais see their dogs’ coats tangle and mat from time to time, so trimming the coat about half an inch is permitted. And while the coats can be trimmed at home, at least one trip to a professional groomer is recommended. The groomer can demonstrate the proper trimming method, and provide tips on grooming an Alaskan Klee Kai in general.

When it comes to Alaskan Klee Kai care, it is very important to make sure their exercise needs are met, as they may become high strung and anxious if they do not have an outlet to burn off energy.

The Alaskan Klee Kai is a very intelligent breed, much like the Huskies they are descended from.

They are highly trainable and can quickly learn new commands.

However, if you catch them in a mischievous mood, they may desire to simply play around with you rather than actually learn. In such cases, they can be a bit of a handful.

Using positive, reward-based training will always win out in the end though.

Framing the training as a game can also help keep them focused.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry

  • ARBA = American Rare Breed Association

  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.

  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club

  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.

  • NKC = National Kennel Club

  • UKC = United Kennel Club

Alaskan Malamute Dogs

Alaskan Malamute

 KEY FACTS

The Alaskan Malamute is the largest of the Arctic dogs. This thick, well-built dog is solid with a plumed tail that is held over the back. The head is wide with erect ears. The eyes are of medium size, dark brown small, and almond in shape and are obliquely placed in the skull. Dark eyes are preferred; blue eyes are a fault according to the written standard. The feet are large, of the snowshoe type with tough pads. The thick, coarse double coat averages one to three inches in length. The dog often has darker highlights and sometimes has a dark mask or cap. The legs and muzzle are almost always white. In some areas, dogs may be either smaller or larger than the official standard.

Lifespan:  12- 16 years

Height: 61-66cm (24-26 inches)

Weight: 36-43Kg (80-95 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: light grey, black, sable, red, black and white, wolf sable, white

Group: Working dog

Alaskan Malamutes are not recommended for apartment life. They are fairly active indoors and should have at least a large garden. If you live in a suburban area, a high fence is a must, but bury the base, because they are likely to dig their way out. The Alaskan Malamute likes to roam in what he considers to be his territory. The Malamutes coat allows them to withstand extreme cold, but be careful to keep the dog cool in hot climates. Make sure they have shade and plenty of clean cool water.

The Alaskan Malamute is extremely loyal and intelligent, sweet and most affectionate toward its master. Great with children who are old enough to play with him safely. If its canine instincts are met, it matures into a dignified and mellow adult dog. They are very friendly and therefore are not suitable as guard dogs. Malamutes are happiest living outdoors as long as they receive enough companionship, but they also enjoy living indoors where their human “pack” lives. Without firm leadership and daily mental and physical exercise, these dogs may become destructive nuisances, acting like big, rambunctious puppies.

Malamutes love outdoor activities and even do well in obedience with firm encouragement. Although it can be difficult to train Malamutes for formal obedience, it is not particularly hard to train them to be well-mannered because they love to please. Males can be very dominant. This breed needs the humans around him to be firm, confident and consistent pack leaders. Some dogs may be difficult to housebreak. This breed is a thrifty feeder and needs less food than you might expect. However they do tend to wolf down whatever is offered, which can lead to obesity. Malamutes are quiet compared to most dogs but they do like to howl and dig.

This breed should be supervised around unfamiliar small animals, as they have a strong prey instinct. This does not mean they are not good with small animals; some Malamutes have been known to raise small kittens as their own. Both sexes can be combative with other dogs, especially with the same sex and breed and firm handling and training are necessary to curb this. Proper socialization with people and other dogs is imperative. Obedience training is highly recommended.

The Alaskan Malamute is a Nordic sled dog descended from the Arctic wolf. Its name comes from Mahlemuts, an Alaskan tribe that raised and cared for these beautiful snow dogs. Originally used 2000 to 3000 years ago by these Mahlemuit Eskimos of Alaska, these highly valued dogs were their only form of transportation. These amazing dogs have strength and endurance with a will to work. They pulled not only light traveling sleds, but they also hauled heavy loads of food and supplies for the Arctic people. Packs of Malamutes have participated in many polar expeditions, for which they are particularly well adapted due to their tenacity, sense of direction, and excellent sense of smell. They have appeared as unforgettable characters in the stories of Jack London and Rudyard Kipling. The Malamute went with Admiral Byrd’s expeditions to the South Pole. The Alaskan Malamute is cousins with the Arctic breeds Siberian Husky, Samoyed, and the American Eskimo dog. Some of the Alaskan Malamute’s talents are sledding, carting, search and rescue, weight pulling and racing.

Some Malamutes suffer from hip dysplasia , elbow dysplasia, hypothyroidism, or von Willebrand’s disease. Here is some more info on possible conditions you might see in Malamutes:

Cataracts: Usually present by 1 to 2 years of age, known as juvenile cataracts. This type of cataract rarely progresses to blindness. Affected animals should not be used for breeding.

Chondrodysplasia: This genetic disorder causes puppies to be born with deformities evident in the abnormal shape and length of their limbs. It’s commonly referred to as “dwarfism.” There is now a genetic screening test to determine if the dog carries the gene for this condition.

Hip Dysplasia: This is a heritable condition in which the thighbone doesn’t fit snugly into the hip joint. Some dogs show pain and lameness on one or both rear legs, but you may not notice any signs of discomfort in a dog with hip dysplasia. As the dog ages, arthritis can develop. Although Hip dysplasia is hereditary, it can be worsened by environmental factors, such as rapid growth from a high-calorie diet or injuries incurred from jumping or falling on slick floors.

Hypothyroidism: This condition is often misdiagnosed because tests to evaluate the condition are not specific and can be inaccurate. Hypothyroidism is the result of abnormally low production of the thyroid hormones. Clinical signs vary depending on the severity of each case, but can include dry, coarse, and/or sparse coat, eye discharge, pale mucous membranes, and mental dullness. Hypothyroidism can be managed well with a thyroid replacement pill daily. Medication must continue throughout the dog’s life.

Inherited Polyneuropathy: This is generally characterized by a lack of coordination and instability that leads to a laboured gait described as a bunny-hopping gait. The condition varies from mild to severe. An affected dog may fall down, walk on the tops of his feet, or his gait may just look a little off. Onset is usually quite sudden with most cases noted at approximately one year of age.

Hemeralopia (Day Blindness): This usually begins to show when the puppy is eight weeks old and can be recognized easily by observant owners. Affected dogs bump into or stumble over things. They may be reluctant to come out into sunlight, preferring to stay in shaded areas. They seem to be feeling their way when negotiating steps into the house or disoriented when facing the sun. All these signs of clumsiness disappear at night. Hemeralopia can be managed to help the dog have an acceptable quality of life.

The Alaskan Malamute has a dense coat that should be brushed twice a week. This breed sheds very heavily. The undercoat comes out in clumps twice a year. Bathing is most unnecessary, as the coat sheds dirt readily. Dry shampoo occasionally. This dog is clean and odourless.

Malamutes need a reasonable amount of exercise which include long daily walks. But be careful not to overdo it in warm weather.

The Alaskan Malamute, which is the biggest and strongest of the sled dogs, is a study in contrasts. While it can look quite calm and composed, it may suddenly spring to action. If you’ve just brought home such a pup, your Alaskan Malamute training should keep in mind the dogs’ dominant traits and temperament.

You also need to have at hand basic supplies, including a crate and a leash. Using the crate for your Malamute pup will aid in the process of housebreaking while keeping your furry pal out of trouble. When choosing a crate and dog bed for your Malamute pup, choose one suited for its solid build. Cute Malamute puppies can grow as long as 60 to 70 cm long and reach a hefty 50 to 60 kg.

An Alaskan Malamute training guide may also come handy in understanding your pooch better. It is important to teach your pup who is in charge, and it is certainly not the canine. If you feel that a professional trainer can handle the job of training your Malamute better, then choose a good basic training class designed for young Malamutes. Your vets, friends who are pet owners, or pet shop may be able to recommend good trainers. If you are a first-time dog owner, you may also want to check out Malamute training experts who can be sought for advice through one-on-one phone consultations.

Not training your big little Malamute can lead to behavioural tendencies like pouncing on people, preying on smaller pets in your household, distressing the neighbours, and other hassles. Note that Malamutes will respond positively to those they have developed faith in. Keep in mind also that the Alaskan Malamute is a breed trained to be fearless. Physically reprimanding your pooch may not yield results. Positive reinforcement techniques like giving healthy treats and lots of affection are bound to be more effective.

Malamutes can be suitable for owners who love the great outdoors. Given a healthy diet, regular exercise, love and proper training, your Alaskan Malamute can live a healthy and happy life spanning up to 16 years.

Alaskan Malamute training should take into consideration the fact that such a breed of dog tends to get bored easily. The clever pooch needs to be challenged.

Alaskan Malamute training may turn out to be tough, but by showing patience and firmness when teaching your gentle and tenacious giant, you can have a rewarding experience with your beloved pet.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • APRI = America’s Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Federation Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
American Black and Tan Coonhound dogs

American Black & Tan Coonhound

 KEY FACTS

The Black and Tan Coonhound is a large, determined hunting hound. The head is well-proportioned to the body. The length of the Black and Tan’s body is equal to or slightly longer than the height of the dog at the withers. The topline is level. The relatively long head has an oval outline. The muzzle is long. The stop is medium, between the nose and the back of the head. The teeth should meet in a scissors bite. The round looking eyes are hazel to dark brown. The long ears are set low, hanging, reaching beyond the tip of the nose. The legs are long and straight. The nose is wide and black. The strong tail is carried freely. The dog’s skin fits loosely. The short, dense coat is black with distinct tan markings on the muzzle, limbs and chest.

Lifespan:  10- 12 years

Height: 58-68cm (23-27 inches)

Weight: 45-64Kg (50-75 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: Black and Tan

Group: Scent hound

The Black and Tan Coonhound is not recommended for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors but will do best with at least a large garden.

A quick-to-follow, intelligent, loyal and good-natured hunter and companion, the Black and Tan Coonhound pleases hunter and owner alike. The Black and Tan is an alert, eager dog who is a passionate worker and very dedicated. It is gentle and friendly with people and willing to listen to his master. They are usually best with older considerate children, but can do well with younger children if the dog is taught to respect the child as above him in the pecking order. A Black and Tan that is not taught respect and/or is lacking in exercise can become high strung and play too rough.

This breed requires firm, patient and on-going leadership and training to prevent them from becoming wilful. Lack of leadership and/or mental and physical exercise may cause separation anxiety, causing them to be destructive and/or howl if they are left alone. Do not let this breed off the leash in an unsafe area, as they may take off after an interesting scent. Some Black and Tans will be aggressive with other strange dogs if the humans are not displaying enough authority, telling the dog it is an unacceptable behaviour by applying corrections at the appropriate times. Socialize well.

There are two types of Black and Tan Coonhounds: field lines and show lines (bench). Field types are bred for hunting and field trial work. The bench type is bred for conformation shows. Both types are energetic and need daily exercise, but field lines have a higher energy level and need even more exercise. The dominancy level in this breed varies even within the same litter.

If you are not the type of person who can display a natural air of calm, but firm authority, then be sure to choose a pup that is more submissive. The temperament of both show and field lines vary widely, depending upon how the owners treat the dog and how much and what type of exercise they provide. This breed drools and slobbers. Does best with an active family.

The Black and Tan Coonhound was developed by crossing the Talbot Hound (now extinct) with the Bloodhound and black and tan Foxhound. The Black and Tan Coonhound was the first coonhound to be considered a separate breed from the Foxhound. This working coonhound has very successfully been used to hunt all types of game. It withstands well the rigors of winter as well as intense heat.

The Black and Tan Coonhound, which has an average lifespan of 10 to 12 years, is prone to minor health concerns such as Ectropion and hypothyroidism, and major issues like canine hip dysplasia (CHD). The Coonhound also occasionally suffers from Haemophilia B. To identify some of these issues, a vet may recommend hip and thyroid tests for the dog.

This is an easy dog to brush with its short coat, so occasional brushing once or twice a week is sufficient. As it does shed an average amount there will be some loose hair around the home, a need to vacuum regularly and a quick brush more often can help reduce the hair. It is not a dog suited for home with people who have allergies. It is prone to drooling and slobbering so some dog bibs may be a good idea and they will need a wipe of their face at least daily. It does have a musty smell but bathing too often will damage its natural oils. Wipe it down with a damp cloth now and then when needed. When brushing use a rubber curry brush. When it is bath time make sure you use only a dog shampoo and rinse it very well as shampoo residue left in its coat can cause skin problems.

Vigorous daily exercise is needed, which includes a long walk each day. Does best with an active family. Will do well with a job to do.

Basics

Food-motivated Black and Tan Coonhounds will often perform basic obedience requests in exchange for treats. Coonhounds tend to be easily distracted, and—though smart—they aren’t always willing to do as asked. Basic obedience, a solid recall, and leash manners are important first steps for the Black and Tan.

 

Advanced Training

Black and Tans are not common in the show ring, but they do make appearances. They also possess the intelligence and drive to compete in agility and other dog sports. Nosework and tracking are areas in which this scenthound is sure to shine, whether through scent games or in competition. Some Black and Tans have been trained for search and rescue, and they may have the skills and temperament to work as a service animal.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • APRI = America’s Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Federation Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
American Cocker Spaniel

American Cocker Spaniel

 KEY FACTS

The Cocker Spaniel is a medium sized, sturdy dog. The head is rounded with a pronounced stop. The muzzle is broad and deep with square, even jaws. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The eyes are dark, very round with slight almond shaped eye rims. Merle Cocker Spaniels can have blue eyes. The long, low-set ears are well feathered. The topline slopes slightly from the front of the dog to the back and the legs are straight. The tail is docked. Note: docking tails is illegal in most parts of Europe. The silky coat is flat or slightly wavy. The hairs are medium length on the body but short and fine on the head. There is feathering on the ears, chest, abdomen and legs. The coat comes in any solid colour, black with tan points, merle, solid colour with tan points and parti-colour. Examples of parti colour combinations are white with buff or red, white with black, or white with black and tan points. Field lines have shorter coats than show lines.

Lifespan:  12- 15 years

Height: 38cm (15.5  inches)

Weight: 7-14Kg (15-30 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: High

Colours: Black, Any Solid Colour Other than Black, and Parti-Colour

Group: Gundog

Cockers will do okay in an apartment if they are adequately exercised. They are fairly active indoors. A small garden is sufficient. Not suited to live outside alone in a kennel.

Bold and keen to work, the American Cocker Spaniel is equally suited to life as a gundog or as a household pet. Cheerful, gentle and sweet, this breed is of average intelligence and is respectful of its master’s authority. Amusing, trustworthy and charming with an ever-wagging tail, it is active, playful and devoted, but should be socialized well when it is young to avoid a tendency for shyness.

Cockers that understand their place is under humans are good with children. They love everyone and need firm, loving leadership and daily exercise to be happy. They can be difficult to housebreak. They are mostly easy to train and get along well with other animals. The goal with all dogs is to achieve pack leader status. It is natural instinct for a dog to have an order in its pack.

When we humans live with dogs, we become their pack. The entire pack cooperates under a single leader; lines are clearly defined, and rules are set. You and all other humans MUST be higher up in the order than the dog. Owners who allow their dogs to believe they are higher up in the order and/or who do not provide daily mental and physical exercise will experience a whole different temperament than the one described above. The dog may develop shy-sharpness, which is a combination of fear and dominance that can cause viciousness. Submissive urinating is usually caused by overexcitement, a lack of daily mental and physical exercise, where they are wound up and their minds are not given the chance to calm down on a daily basis. Also aggressive guarding of objects, people and places, obsessive barking, hyperactivity and roaming, among other negative behaviours.

There are two types, field lines and show lines. Field lines are bred for working and have better hunting instincts and shorter coats, which is more practical for working in the woods. Both types make good pets when the owners meet their needs as canine animals.

The Cocker Spaniel dates back as far as the 14th century. The breed originated from the English Cocker Spaniels which were brought to the United States. The Spaniels were bred down in size and given the name American Cocker Spaniels, officially called simply the “Cocker Spaniel” by the AKC. The American Cocker Spaniel is more popular than the original English Cocker Spaniel, which are slightly different in appearance, with longer muzzles and larger bodies. The Cocker Spaniel is a hunting-gun dog able to work in difficult terrain in both wet and dry land. Excellent at flushing and retrieving game with a gentle mouth. They listen to commands well. The name “Cocker” comes from the woodcock, a game bird the dogs were known for flushing. Some of the American Cocker Spaniel’s talents are hunting, tracking, retrieving, watchdog, agility and competitive obedience.

Major concerns: cataract, glaucoma, PRA

Minor concerns: CHD, ectropion, patellar luxation, entropion, allergies, seborrhoea, otitis externa, liver disease, CHF, phosphofructokinase deficiency, urinary stones, cherry eye, cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism

Wipe under the eyes often as they tend to tear. Some owners prefer to leave the coat long, brushing daily and shampooing frequently with quarterly scissoring and clipping. Others prefer to clip the coat to medium length to be more functional. Either way, the dog will need regular trimming. When brushing, be careful not to pull out the silky hair. This breed is an average shedder.

The American Cocker does need regular exercise, but daily walks and play in the back garden or at a dog park will suffice. When well socialized, American Cocker Spaniels are friendly and peaceful with strangers and other animals.

American Cocker Spaniels are highly intelligent which makes them very easy to train. They are fast learners and learn very quickly what is expected of them. Consistent and firm positive training will ensure these dogs do not try to take over your role.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
American White Shepherd Dogs

American White Shepherd

 KEY FACTS

The American White Shepherd looks almost exactly like a German Shepherd except for the colour. It has a stiff, long, or longhaired coat. The longhaired types do not have an undercoat. The colour is always white.

Lifespan:  Around 12 years

Height: 60 – 65cm (24 – 26 inches)

Weight: 35-40Kg (77-85 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: White

Group: Herder

White Shepherds will do okay in an apartment if sufficiently exercised. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with at least a large garden

White Shepherds are courageous, keen, alert and fearless. They are cheerful, obedient and eager to learn. Tranquil, confident, serious and clever, White Shepherds are extremely faithful and brave. They will not think twice about giving their lives for their human pack. They have a high learning ability. White Shepherds love to be close to their families, but can be wary of strangers. This breed needs its people and should not be left isolated for long periods of time. They only bark when they feel it is necessary. Often used as police dogs, the White Shepherd has a very strong protective instinct, and is extremely loyal to its handler.

Socialized this breed well starting at puppyhood. Aggression and attacks on people are due to poor handling and training. Problems arise when an owner allows the dog to believe he is pack leader over humans and/or does not give the dog the mental and physical daily exercise it needs to be stable. This breed needs owners who are naturally authoritative over the dog in a calm, but firm, confident and consistent way.

A stable, well-adjusted and trained dog is for the most part generally good with other pets and excellent with children in the family. They must be firmly trained in obedience from an early age. White Shepherds that have passive owners and/or whose instincts are not being met can become timid, skittish and may be prone to fear biting and develop a guarding issue. They should be trained and socialized from an early age.

White Shepherds will not listen if they sense that they are stronger minded than their owner, however they will also not respond well to harsh discipline. Owners need to have an air of natural authority to their demeanour. Do not treat this dog as if he were human. Learn canine instincts and treat the dog accordingly.

White Shepherds are one of the smartest and most trainable breeds. With this highly skilled working dog comes a drive to have a job and a task in life and a consistent pack leader to show it guidance. They need somewhere to channel their mental and physical energy. This is not a breed that will be happy simply lying around your living room or locked out in the garden. The breed is so intelligent and learns so readily that it has been used as a sheepdog, guard dog, in police work, as a guide for the blind, in search and rescue service and in the army. The White Shepherd also excels in many other dog activities including tracking, obedience, agility, flyball and ring sport. His fine nose can sniff out drugs and intruders and can alert handlers to the presence of underground mines in time to avoid detonation, or gas leaks in a pipe buried 15 feet underground. The White Shepherd is also a popular show and family companion.

Originating from the Europe , United States and Canada, it is a direct descendant of the German Shepherd Dog. Certainly, there has been no other breed or breeds added in order to make them white. The gene that controls the white colour is a natural component in the total colour genetic makeup of the German Shepherd Dog breed.

Some of the diseases that have been found in this breed are:

hip and elbow dysplasia (be sure both parents have their hips scored)

malabsorption syndrome

degenerative joint disease (including osteochondritis)

megaoesophagus

bloat

allergies (food, fleas or airborne)

This breed sheds hair constantly and is a seasonally heavy shedder. They should be brushed daily or you will have hair all over your home. Bathe only when necessary; over bathing can cause skin irritation from oil depletion. Check ears and trim claws regularly.

White Shepherds love strenuous activity, preferably combined with training of some kind, for these dogs are very intelligent and crave a good challenge. They need to be taken on a daily, brisk, long walk, jog or run alongside you when you bicycle. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. Most Shepherds love to play ball or Frisbee. Ten to fifteen minutes of fetching along with daily pack walks will tire your dog out quite nicely as well as give him a sense of purpose. Whether it is ball chasing, Frisbee catching, obedience training, participation in a canine playgroup or just taking long walks/jogs, you must be willing to provide some form of daily, constructive exercise. The daily exercise must always include daily walks/jogs to satisfy the dog’s migration instinct. If under-exercised and/or not mentally challenged, this breed can become restless and destructive. Does best with a job to do.

There are three essential disciplines that you must teach your dog.

  • Sit and Stay
  • Recall
  • To walk to heel
 

This is because these exercises are important for safety and control especially in an emergency situation. You can easily start these exercises in the home or garden. For example, at feeding times, get into the habit of making your dog sit and stay whilst you put it’s meal on the floor. Keeping it sitting for a short while and then release it to eat it’s food. Over a period of time increase the length of the time you keep your dog sitting but remember if the dog makes a break for the food, pick up the bowl and start again. A white Shepherd will soon get the message.

Recall is about enthusiastically calling your dog to you and making a big fuss of it when it comes. For a puppy or during initial training use a “treat” as a reward. Here is where a hand signal is useful. This because when you are training in the house it is not needed but think of being in the park and your dog is some distance away, the hand signal will re-enforce your verbal command. Use hand signals even in the house to develop the link.

Teaching a dog to walk to heel and not pull when on the lead can be a bit tedious but basically every time the dog pulls just stand still. When your dog has settled down walk forward again. At first you will spend more time standing still (hence the tedious bit). However, quite soon your dog will get the message that it is not going anywhere if it pulls.

Remember to always give a “release command” to release your dog from whatever you have asked it to do. Your German Shepherd needs to know the exercise is over and it is free to go.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • AWSA = American White Shepherd Association
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • WGSDCV = White German Shepherd Dog Club of Victoria
  • WSSDCA = White Swiss Shepherd Dog Club of Australia

 

The White Shepherd is registered as a White Shepherd with the American White Shepherd Association (AWSA) and the United Kennel Club (UKC).

The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) recognized it as a Berger Blanc Swiss in 2002, which is the same name the White Swiss Shepherd Dog Club of Australia (WSSDCA) uses (in translation).

The Swiss recognized the White GSD as a separate breed first, which is why Switzerland was credited as the country of origin and the breed name changed to reflect this. Most other clubs register it as a German Shepherd Dog (white) calling the white colour a disqualifying fault

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Anatolian Shepherd dogs

Anatolian Shepherd

 KEY FACTS

The Anatolian Shepherd Dog is a native of Turkey, where they were bred as a shepherd’s companion and livestock guardian. They were created with specific traits to resemble the size and colour of livestock they defended so predators wouldn’t detect them among the flock.

Sometimes called the Anatolian Karabash Dog or Kangal, they’re a fiercely loyal guard dog and a large, impressive dog breed, frequently weighing 54 to 68kg (120-150 pounds) at maturity.

Lifespan: 12 to 15 years)

Height: 71- 76cm (28 -30 inches)

Weight: 45-68Kg (100-150 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: White, Brindle, Blue Fawn, White & Biscuit, Liver, Red Fawn

Group: Working Group

Anatolian Shepherds are not recommended for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors and will do best with at least a garden. This breed is very suspicious of strangers, and it is therefore necessary to provide a secure, fenced garden.

The Anatolian Shepherd is a flock guardian with a superior sense of sight and hearing. It is not a herding dog. It is very loyal, alert and capable of great speed and endurance. It is intelligent, alert and easy to train, but is not a dog for beginners. It needs a handler who naturally radiates leadership.

Independent, calm, unwavering and brave, but not aggressive, they tend to bark at night and if they are living indoors with you, you need to correct this behaviour if it is unwanted. Since the Anatolian Shepherd is a born flock guard it will be very watchful and can become possessive if not kept in its rightful place below the humans. If it sees itself above the family it may act affectionate with them but very suspicious of strangers to a point where it is a problem. This is an issue that is particularly worrisome after the dog reaches adulthood. This is why it is very important that the dog sees the humans as boss.

Being a flock guard, it will always have an instinct to protect and this cannot be bred out or raised out of it, however a dog that accepts the humans as its leader will also accept the strangers that the humans formally introduce to them. It will also look to the humans as the ones who make the decisions. You do not want a dog of this size and strength living in your home making all of the calls.

The Anatolian Shepherd will still be possessive with the home and property, not allowing anyone in if the owner is not home, unless it has had frequent contact with the person. Friends of the family will be welcomed. This proud dog is demanding of itself, and can be stubborn and dominant if it sees itself as a leader of the home.

They will generally get along with other animals provided they have been introduced to them when they are still young. They can be rather dominant towards other dogs and it is important to socialize them while they are still young.

These dogs mature slowly, reaching full adulthood at about four years old. Dogs that are going to work as flock guards should not be family pets or they will prefer the family over the animals they are supposed to be guarding. They need to be socialized with humans coming into the field so it is possible for them to receive veterinary care and any necessary grooming, but should live their entire life with the flock and not brought inside the home with the humans. This socialization should take place while the dog is a puppy. Anatolians will walk the border of their territory every night, then find a high place to lie down to watch over their charges.

Every few hours they will get up and walk around their flock again just to make sure all is safe. If they detect danger they will give off a deep warning bark. If that does not scare away the threat they will deepen their bark, making themselves sound more serious and alerting the flock to gather behind them. If the danger persists and approaches the flock the Anatolian will attack, but this is always saved as a last resort. Extensive early socialization, obedience training and consistent dominant leadership are very important when owning an Anatolian Shepherd.

The Anatolian Shepherd is native to Asia Minor. It protects flocks and serves as a shepherd’s companion. On the high Anatolian Plateau, summers are hot and very dry and winters are cold. The Anatolian Shepherd Dog is able to live outside all year round.

For centuries the ancestors of the Anatolian Shepherd were used as combat dogs in war and for hunting. It was particularly valued for the victorious battles it could fight with wolves. The Turkish people would put a spiked collar on them to protect their necks from getting bit by predators who attacked their charges.

As a sheepdog, it was bothered by neither fatigue nor bad weather.

Today it is still used as a sheep dog as well as a guard dog. The Anatolian Shepherd is very closely related to the Kangal Dog and some people even declare all Turkish shepherds i.e. the Kangal Dog, to be one breed, the Anatolian Shepherd, however the true Turkish Kangal Dogs are said to be a separate breed from the generic Turkish shepherd’s dog. The isolated historical conditions of the Sivas-Kangal region have resulted in the development of the Kangal Dog as a distinct breed which has been declared the National Dog of Turkey and a national treasure. The true Turkish Kangal Dogs are first and foremost still primarily working shepherds. The export of pure Kangal Dogs from Turkey has been controlled and now is virtually forbidden.

Prone to hypothyroidism or to eyelid entropion. Hip dysplasia does occur, but is not as common as in some other large breeds. They are sensitive to anaesthesia. The Anatolian Shepherd’s immunity often takes longer to develop than with many other breeds and therefore you should talk to your vet about giving young Anatolians extra vaccinations against Parvo-virus.

This breed requires little grooming. The coat needs thorough brushing-out during the twice-a-year shedding seasons. You can get away with little attention the rest of the year. The Anatolian Shepherd is a seasonal, heavy shedder.

This breed needs a lot of exercise. They do best when they can run free in their own fenced-in garden, but still need to go on long daily walks. Does best with a job to do; a flock to protect.

When training the Anatolian Shepherd, the best results are achieved by motivational training methods with a determined, firm, confident, consistent and loving approach. This is not a dog for the passive owner or an owner who does not understand canine instinct. It is very important to begin training as early as possible, because a fully grown dog may be too strong and too big to be corrected by the average person. Owners who do not display natural, very strong, but even tempered, authority over the dog will find the dog to have his own ideas and will obey known commands if it does not wish to do so. Sensitive to reprimands and eager to receive affection, this breed is patient and protective with children of the family, but may accidentally knock them down. Children should always be supervised and properly introduced. Confident, the Anatolian Shepherd does not require any additional protection training. It already has very strong protection instincts which will get stronger as the dog matures. These instincts will peak at around one and a half years of age.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Federation Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
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Bearded Collie

Bearded Collie

 KEY FACTS

The Bearded Collie is a medium-sized, strong working dog. The body is long and lean. The head is large, broad and flat with a moderate stop. The muzzle is relatively short, strong and full. The black nose is large and square. The medium-sized ears hang close to the head and are covered with long hair. The teeth are large and meet in a scissors bite. The eyes are wide set and are in tone with the coat colour. The tail is carried low unless the dog is excited. They have a shaggy, waterproof, double coat that hangs over the entire body including the chin (hence the name “Beardie”). Beardie pups are born black, blue, brown or fawn, with or without white markings and often lighten, first fading to a light grey or cream as the dog matures. The coat colour changes several times before it reaches the adult colour. The final coat colour is somewhere between the puppy coat colour and the colour the coat is when the dog is about a year old.

Lifespan: 14 to 15 years)

Height: 51- 56cm (20 -22 inches)

Weight: 18-27Kg (40-60 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: High

Colours: (See description)

Group: Pastoral Group

The Bearded Collie is not recommended for apartment life. They are fairly active indoors and will do best with at least an average-sized garden. Beardies can sleep outdoors and make excellent farm dogs. They are also good in windy, rugged or wet areas since the dogs will go out in all weather conditions. It does not like to be confined and should have a place to run off of its lead. The Beardie prefers to be outdoors.

The Bearded Collie has an air of cheerful, happy-go-lucky, tail-wagging humour. It is affectionate, playful and lively, and can make a perfect companion for children. They love to be with their people.

An unexercised Beardie that is left alone without anything to do will not be happy, and you may not be happy with what it does while you are gone. If you must leave your Beardie, be sure to take it for a long jog or walk prior to leaving.

Known for its “bounce,” the Beardie is exuberant and high-energy; without enough daily mental and physical exercise it may get itself into mischief.

The Bearded Collie originated in Britain and is one of the country’s oldest breeds.

The foundation of the breed was started in 1514 when a Polish sea captain made a trade with a local Scottish shepherd. He traded three of his Polish Sheepdog (Polski Owczarek Nizinny; PON) for a ram and a ewe. The shepherd then bred these dogs with other herding and flock dogs such as the Old English Sheepdogs (bobtails) and the Komondor.

The dogs were used as herding dogs for centuries in Scotland and became known as the “Highland Collie,” the “Highland Sheepdog” and the “Hairy Moved Collie.”

They were excellent workers, herding sheep and cattle for local shepherds.

The name “Bearded” comes from the long hairs that grow on the chin, making the dog look like he has a beard, and the name “Collie,” which is the Scottish word for herding dog.

The Bearded Collie almost became extinct during the Second World War. In 1944 Mrs. G. O. Willison from Great Britain bred a pair of Bearded Collies, resurrecting the breed.

They are still to this day considered a rare breed. Some of the Beardie’s talents are tracking, herding, agility, competitive obedience and performing tricks.

Prone to hip dysplasia. Their dense coat may conceal external parasite infestation.

Daily brushing of the long, shaggy coat is important. Mist the coat lightly with water before you begin. Tease out mats before they get bad, and give extra attention when the dog is shedding. Use the comb sparingly. If you prefer, the coat can be professionally machine-clipped every two months or so. Eyes, ears and paws should be checked daily. Bathe or dry shampoo when necessary. It is difficult to locate ticks in the thick undercoat, so check regularly. This breed is an average shedder.

This is an active dog that needs lots of exercise, which includes a long daily walk. This breed also will greatly enjoy time to run free in a safe area.

It is very trainable for many activities. An owner who displays a natural authority is a must as Beardies think a lot and will be headstrong if he sees you as meek.

One needs to be calm, but firm, confident and consistent when dealing with this dog. Set the rules you wish the dog to follow and stick to them. Obedience training is recommended.

The Beardie is a natural herder of people and animals. They are noisy barkers, but are not watchdogs. They should not be shy or aggressive. When well balanced between leadership and exercise they will be stable and self-confident.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
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Border Collie Dogs

Border Collie

 KEY FACTS

The Border Collie is a medium sized, energetic working dog. Its body is slightly longer than it is tall. The relatively flat skull is moderate in width. The skull and muzzle are about the same length, with a moderate stop. The strong teeth meet in a scissors bite. The oval eyes are set well apart and brown in colour, except in merles where one or both eyes may be blue. The medium sized ears are set well apart, either carried erect or semi-erect. The front legs are straight when viewed from the front, but slightly sloping when viewed from the side. The medium sized tail is set low reaching at least to the hock, rising somewhat when the dog is excited. The double coat is weather resistant, dense and close-fitting. There are two coat varieties: a short, sleek coat ( about 2.5 cm  (1 inch) long) and a coarse, rough coat (about 7.6 cm (3 inches) long).

The coat colours come in. The longer haired variety should have a mane and tail brush. The hair on the face, ears and front legs is always short and sleek. Since Border Collies are bred for working ability and intelligence rather than for physical beauty, conformation varies widely.

Lifespan:  12 to 15 years)

Height: 48- 56cm (19 -22 inches)

Weight: 14-20Kg (30-45 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: High

Colours: black and white, tricolour, red and white, black and grey, yellow, yellow and white, sable, and all black

Group: Pastoral Group

The Border Collie is not recommended for apartment life. They are very active indoors and do best with acreage. This breed will do fine in a kennel provided it has daily activity and sees plenty of its handler. This breed is not suited to life chained up all day.

The Border Collie is very intelligent and aware of its surroundings. Border Collies require considerably more daily physical exercise and mental stimulation than many other breeds. The border collie is widely considered to be the most intelligent dog breed. The border collie ranks 1st in Stanley Coren’s The Intelligence of Dogs, being part of the top 10 brightest dogs. Although the primary role of the border collie is to herd livestock, the breed is becoming increasingly popular as a companion animal.

The Border Collie was originally called the “Scotch Sheep Dog” and originated in Northumberland along the borders of Scotland and England.

It is a descendant from dogs used by the Vikings to herd reindeer, the old British droving breeds, with spaniel added. Named a “workaholic” for its sheer drive and love for working, the Border Collie has an eye that can hypnotize cattle. It can master any type of herd by crouching down and mesmerizing the animals with its intense stare. One of the most trainable breeds, the Border Collie also serves well as a narcotics and bomb detection dog and is a frequent high performer in obedience, agility, Frisbee™ trials, police work, search and rescue, Flyball, performing tricks and competitive obedience. Some Border Collies have been trained very successfully as guide dogs for the blind. Currently very good results are obtained with them for general assistance to the handicapped in The Netherlands.

Prone to epilepsy, hip dysplasia, PRA (Collie Eye Anomaly) and deafness. Often allergic to fleas. Some herding dogs carry a MDR1 gene which makes them sensitive to certain drugs that are otherwise okay to give another dog, but if tested positive for this gene, can kill them.

The Border Collie needs regular combing and brushing to keep the coat gleaming. Extra care is needed when the soft, dense undercoat is shedding. Bathe or dry shampoo only when necessary. Check the ears and coat regularly for ticks. This breed is an average shedder.

Physical exercise alone is not sufficient for this very intelligent and highly energetic dog. They want to work and must do so with body and mind as one, carrying out different tasks. Fast and agile, these lively little dogs have boundless energy and thrive on hard work and play. They should also be taken on a long, brisk daily walk. They are a delight to see streaking after a ball or bringing straying sheep back to the fold.

It is able to be trained to a high degree. This is one of the hardest working dogs thriving on praise. Border Collies are represented among the leaders in competitive levels in various sports, excelling in agility skills, obedience and sheepdog trials. These competitions are right up their alley, and they are commonly used and often win. For those who wish to reach high levels in dog sports, the Border Collie is a gift from heaven. Farmers are also happy with them, as they were originally bred as a farmhand. The Border Collie is highly energetic with great stamina.

Provided they get sufficient activity to keep them occupied and ample exercise, the Border Collie will get along quite happily with other dogs and children, however they may be aggressive with other dogs of the same sex if you are not showing 100% leadership with them. They should not be trusted with small non-canine pets, however there are plenty of Border Collies that live and get along with family cats.

This breed can be sensitive and should be very well socialized as a puppy to prevent shyness. To be truly happy, they need a lot of consistent leadership, extensive daily exercise, and a job to occupy their minds.

Border Collies will often challenge their owners’ authority when they are adolescents. Dominance levels vary greatly, even within the same litter. You need to be this dog’s firm, confident, consistent pack leader, or he may try and take over. If you allow him to take over, without enough socialization and mental and physical exercise, he can be highly reactive and sound sensitive, making him a poor choice for families with young children.

The Border Collie is a perfectionist with a permanent will to please. This breed lives for serving you day in and day out. It is not an ideal pet for people who do not plan to spend a lot of time with it. These dogs are too intelligent to lie around the house all day with nothing to do. If you are not willing to put many hours a day into keeping these dogs well exercised in both mind and body, then it is recommended you do not adopt a Border Collie. There are other breeds that are similar yet not as demanding such as the Shetland Sheepdog or the Australian Shepherd, which are both highly trainable, still need stimulation and exercise, but can usually get away with less than a Border Collie. If there is insufficient activity then the Border Collie will find its own work to do, and that may not be what YOU had in mind when we say the word WORK.

When not challenged daily they can and will become destructive. They cannot be left alone for too long with nothing to do if they have not been exercised to the point where they are both mentally and physically tired.

A bored Border Collie will not make a good pet, as it can become neurotic and may start using its escape artist talents, among other behavioural problems. They have strong herding instincts and may try to herd children and strangers and must be told this is not acceptable.

  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
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Borzoi Dog breed

Borzoi

 KEY FACTS

The Borzoi (borzaya, meaning ‘sighthound’ in Russian), also called the Russian Hunting Sighthound and known as the Russian Wolfhound until 1936, is a sighthound hunting breed of domestic dog.

Lifespan:  12 to 15 years

Height: 71- 76cm (28 -30 inches)

Weight: 45-68Kg (100-150 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: Any

Group: Sighthound Group

Will do okay in an apartment if sufficiently exercised. They are relatively inactive indoors and are so peaceful it might escape notice, but outside they need plenty of space to walk and run—so they will do best with a large garden. In the city he should only be let off the lead in a safe, enclosed space.

The Borzoi is a sweet, intelligent dog. It is proud and is extremely loyal to its family. It is quite affectionate with people it knows well. They can be trained in obedience, but it should be remembered that they are hounds, and as such are more free-thinking and less willing to please humans than some breeds. They are, however, very intelligent and capable learners.

The training of this breed needs to be gentle, but firm and consistent. The Borzoi needs an owner who displays a natural authority over him, making the rules of the home clear and confidently sticking to them. Borzoi often appear to be cat-like in that they keep themselves quite clean. They are quiet dogs, rarely barking.

Like all other sighthounds, they are very fast and have little to no territorial instinct. Therefore, they cannot be trusted off leash, unless in a securely fenced or very safe area. If they get sight of a small animal they may take off after it and not even hear you calling them back.

They are good with other dogs but should be supervised with small non-canine pets such as cats, rabbits, guinea pigs and hamsters. Spending time outdoors with small animals is not advised. Socialize them very well with cats and other pets at as young an age as possible, but remember the Borzoi will always be a hunter that may race after a fleeing animal.

The Borzoi is a noble dog that gets along fairly well with children, but it is not ideally suited for being a child’s companion as it does not take well to rough play. During the growing stage, these dogs need a highly nutritional diet.

The Borzoi (coming from the Russian word “Borzii” meaning ‘Swift’) was bred for hundreds of years by Russian nobility. They were developed by crossing the Arabian Greyhound with other longer haired Russian sheepdogs.

Fierce on the hunt, this sighthound was used for hundreds of years to hunt wolves, fox and hare in the open planes of Russia. As the breed became more popular it was used more and more as a companion dog and its temperament became more docile. The Borzoi’s talents include hunting, sighting and lure coursing.

Prone to bloat. Large meals should be avoided, but rather should have small meals two or three times a day. Avoid exercise after meals. Sensitive to drugs.

The long, silky coat is easy to groom. Brush regularly with a firm bristle brush, and dry shampoo when necessary. Bathing presents a problem with such a tall dog, but shouldn’t be required very often. Clip the hair between the toes to keep the feet comfortable and to stop them from spreading. This breed is a seasonally heavy shedder.

To maintain their fitness these dogs need plenty of exercise, including a long daily walk and regular opportunities to run off the leash, however in some countries it is forbidden to allow all the dogs in this fleet-footed hunting category off the leash. The Borzoi make excellent jogging companions and usually enjoy running alongside a bicycle but beware, a Borzoi is quite likely to shoot off after any prey it catches sight of. If this happens you will need to react very quickly.

Borzoi are independent and aren’t the easiest of dogs to train. People often confuse hunting breeds (like the Borzoi) for working breeds (like the German Shepherd) and therefore don’t respond as quickly or efficiently to their owner’s commands.

Don’t be offended if you don’t find the right training technique, it often takes a few tries until you find what is right for both you and your pooch. Patience is key as this breed will not respond to harsh training techniques.

The two main focuses should be socialization and recall. As a hunting breed, the instinct to chase is strong, so you must ensure your dog’s recall is sufficient before allowing them off the lead.

This dog has a great memory and if they suffer a bad experience, it won’t be forgotten easily. So it is best to avoid punishments, especially when house training your puppy.

If they have any toilet accidents in the home, take them straight outside and continue to monitor their behaviour indoors. You can often tell when they will go to the toilet in the home as they begin smelling the floor.

  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • BCUK = Borzoi Club in the UK
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
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Cardigan Welsh Corgi dogs

Cardigan Welsh Corgi

 KEY FACTS

Cardigan Welsh Corgi’s (Cardis) are trainable, faithful, and vigilant guardians with a “big dog” bark. Well-socialized Cardis are especially fond of kids and agreeable with other pets. These athletic, rugged herders have a love for the outdoors, and they thrive on mental stimulation and physical activity.

Lifespan:  12 to 15 years

Height:25- 33cm (10 -13 inches)

Weight: 11-14Kg (25 – 30 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: High

Colours: Merle, Black & White, Brindle & White, Sable & White, Red & White, Blue Merle & White

Group: Herding Group

Corgis will do fine in an apartment if they are sufficiently exercised. With enough exercise they can be calm indoors, but will be very active if they are lacking. Will do okay without a garden so long as they are taken for daily walks.

The Cardigan Welsh Corgi is highly intelligent and obedient, and able and willing to please its owner. Reliable, dedicated and loving, but can be wary of strangers. Socialize well, preferably when young. Corgis are extremely active and devoted little dogs, and are good with considerate children so long as the dog sees himself below humans in the pack order.

Protective and sturdy, they make fine guards, and excellent show and obedience dogs. Good with other non-canine animals, but can be combative with other dogs if the owners do not properly communicate to the dog that aggressiveness is an unwanted behaviour. They sometimes attempt to herd people by nipping at their heels, and should be taught not to do this.

The Pembroke tends to bark a lot and makes a good watchdog. If you find your dog is barking at you in order to communicate, you need to hush the dog and look into your leadership skills. A dog that is barking at you in that manner is showing signs of dominancy issues.

If you can treat your Corgi in such a way that he is mentally sound, he makes a wonderful companion. Issues will arise if the dog is above the humans in the pack order and if he does not receive enough daily exercise. Do not allow the Corgi to developed Small Dog Syndrome.

The Cardigan Welsh Corgi is older than the Pembroke Welsh Corgi, with the Pembroke being bred out of the Cardigan. Both Corgi varieties may be a descendant of the Keeshond, Pomeranian, Schipperkes and the Swedish Vallhund. Some say the older Cardigan was from Cardiganshire, brought there by the Celts in 1200 BC, whereas the Pembroke’s ancestors were introduced by Flemish weavers to the Celts in the 1100s. Whatever the case may be, the Cardigan and the Pembroke Welsh Corgis were interbred and considered the same breed up until 1934 when a show judge thought they were too different and separated them into two different breeds.

After they were separated the Pembroke gained in popularity and is to this day more popular than the Cardigan. The name “corgi” is specific to that type of dog breed in Cymreig (Welsh). Dog in Cymreig (Welsh) is ‘Ci’ or if it is softly mutated ‘Gi,’ hence Corgi.

Corgis were used as cattle drivers, vermin hunters and farm guards. They drove cattle by barking and nipping at the cattle’s heels rather than just herding them. The dog’s low stature helped him roll out of the way of kicking cows.

Prone to PRA, glaucoma and back disorders. Gains weight easily. Do not overfeed for if they become fat it can cause back problems.

The wiry, medium-length water-resistant coat is easy to groom. Comb and brush with a firm bristle brush, and bathe only when necessary. The coat is shed two times per year.

Even more active that the Pembroke; Cardigans must have regular exercise, including a daily, long walk. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human.

Corgi just like any other dog needs good training while it is still young to ensure a good relationship with the owner. Due to their highly intelligent nature, Corgi training is a piece of cake. The owner however needs to apply authority over the Corgi early in their relationship due to Corgi’s temperament with their tendency to herd over other animals and even humans.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

 KEY FACTS

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a well-proportioned little dog. The head is slightly rounded, the muzzle full, tapering a little with a shallow stop. The nose is black. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The dark brown eyes are round and set well apart with dark eye rims. The long ears are set high with abundant feathering. The topline is level.

The silky coat is medium in length with feathering on the ears, chest, legs and the tail. Colours include tricolour, black and tan, blenheim (red and white) and ruby (rich mahogany red).

Lifespan:  9 to 14 years

Height: 30- 33cm (12 -13 inches)

Weight: 5-8Kg (10 – 18 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Medium

Colours: Blenheim (Liver and white), Black and Tan, Tricolour (Black, liver and white) Ruby (Liver)

Group: Toy Group

Cavalier King Charles Spaniels are good for apartment life. They are moderately active indoors and a small garden will be sufficient. The Cavalier does not do well in very warm conditions.

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is an eager, affectionate and happy dog, always seeming to be wagging its tail. Outgoing and sportive, these fearless lively little dogs are eager and willing to please.

They are intelligent enough to understand what you want and therefore are typically easy to train and respond well to gentle obedience training.

They are said to be naturally well behaved and get along well with other dogs and non-canine pets. Cavaliers love people, enjoy companionship, and need rules to follow and limits to what they are allowed to do.

They are not suited to kennel life and should not be left alone all day. If you do need to leave them, be sure to take them for a walk before you leave to put them in a natural rest mode. Due to their hunting background they do have an instinct to chase. Do not allow this sweet dog to develop Small Dog Syndrome, human-induced behaviours where the dog thinks he is pack leader to humans. This can cause a varying degree of behavioural problems, which are not Cavalier traits, but are brought on by the way they are being treated.

They are recommended with older considerate children, simply because most small dogs are treated in such a way they start to believe they rule the home.

In addition to being the dog’s leader, socialize well to avoid them being reserved with strangers. The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a pleasant companion dog. They have remarkable eyesight and sense of smell and can be used in short hunts in open country. They do well in competitive obedience.

Named for King Charles II, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is descended from the King Charles Spaniel.

In the late 1600s the King Charles Spaniels were interbred with Pugs, which resulted in a smaller dog with flatter noses, upturned faces, rounded heads and protruding eyes. The consequence of this breeding is what we know today as the King Charles Spaniel (English Toy Spaniel).

In the 1920s an American named Roswell Eldridge offered prize money during a Cruft’s Dog Show in London to any person exhibiting King Charles Spaniels with long noses. He was looking for dogs similar to those appearing in Van Dyck’s paintings of King Charles II and his spaniels, before the Pug was bred in. A dog called Ann’s Son, owned by Miss Mostyn Walker, won the Eldridge prize, however Eldridge had died a month before the show opened and was not there to present the award.

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel breed, as we know it today, is the product of the breeders of the late 1920s, though this ‘modern’ breed is the true heir of the royal spaniels of King Charles II.

By the 1940s these dogs were classified as a separate breed and were given the prefix Cavalier to differentiate them from their forebears.

Prone to syringomyelia, hereditary eye disease such as cherry eye, dislocating kneecaps (patella), back troubles, ear infections, early onset of deafness or hearing trouble. Sometimes hip dysplasia. Don’t overfeed. This breed tends to gain weight easily. Also prone to mitral valve disease, a serious genetic heart problem, which can cause early death. It is wise to check the medical history of several previous generations before choosing your puppy.

Comb or brush with a firm bristle brush, and bathe or dry shampoo as necessary. The hair between the pads on the feet needs to be trimmed. Prone to tangling and matting on the ears, and should be brushed often. Clean the inside of the ears regularly. Always make sure the dog is thoroughly dry and warm after a bath. Check the eyes carefully for any signs of infection. This breed is an average shedder.

Cavalier King Charles Spaniels need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfill their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behaviour problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe open area off-lead, such as a large, fenced-in garden.

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is typically a very easy dog to train, they want to please and want to be part of your activities.  Rarely will these dogs be difficult or troublesome, but as with every dog, they will need an education in order to help them fit into your family.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
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Collie (Rough & Smooth) Dog breeds

Collie (Rough & Smooth)

 KEY FACTS

The Collie is a large, lean, strong dog. The top of the skull is flat and the eyebrows are arched. The head is wedge-shaped and the muzzle is rounded, tapering to the black nose, with a slight stop. The face is chiselled. The teeth should meet in a scissors bite. The medium-sized eyes are almond shaped. Eye colour is dark brown except for blue merles, where the eyes may be blue or be one of each colour. The small ears are 3/4 erect with the tips folding forward. The neck is fairly long. The body is slightly longer than it is tall. The legs are straight. The tail is moderately long with an upward twist or swirl at the end and is carried low. There are two coat varieties, rough and smooth. The rough coat is long and abundant all over the body, but is shorter on the head and legs, and the coat forms a mane around the neck and chest. The outer coat is straight and harsh to the touch, and the undercoat is soft and tight. The smooth coat variety has a short one-inch coat all over the body.

Lifespan:  14 to 16 years

Height: 61- 66cm (24 -26 inches)

Weight: 27-34Kg (60 – 75 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: Medium

Colours: sable and white, tricolour of black, white and tan, blue merle or predominantly white with sable, tricolour or blue merle markings.

Group: Pastoral Group

The Collie will dog okay in an apartment as long as it is sufficiently exercised. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with at least an average sized garden. Sensitive to the heat. Provide plenty of shade and fresh water in warm weather.

The Collie is a highly intelligent dog. Sensitive, mild-mannered, sweet, easy to train and loyal, it is usually good with other pets and friendly with other dogs.

They are natural herders; puppies may try and herd humans, and need to be taught not to do this. Faithful, playful, docile and protective of their family members and good with children, Collies have an uncanny sense of direction. They are good-natured, friendly dogs.

They are energetic outdoors. Socialize them well to prevent them from becoming wary of strangers. They are not aggressive, but they do tend to be suspicious of people they sense unstable vibes from.

Daily pack walks are important.

The exact origin of the Collie is unknown, but it was descended from generations of hard-working herding dogs.

For centuries the rough-coated Collie was hardly known outside Scotland. Early rough Collies were smaller, with broader heads and shorter muzzles.

The dogs were used for water rescue, herders, guiding cows and sheep to market and for guarding the flock in Scotland and England.

The breed’s name probably comes from its charge; the Scottish black-faced sheep called the Colley.

In the 1860s Queen Victoria kept Collies at Balmoral Castle in Scotland, making the dogs very popular. J.P. Morgan, along with other wealthy people, has owned Collies.

In the late 1800s the Collie was mixed with the Borzoi, and all show dogs had to have the Borzoi blood for them to win in the show ring.

The working dogs separated, branched out and became the different breeds (with the Scotch Collie remaining) and the show type became what we see now, the large dogs with flatter faces. The rough Collie is much more popular than the smooth Collie. The smooth Collie is more popular in Great Britain than it is in the United States, but is gaining some popularity in the States. The smooth Collie is the same as the rough Collie, but without the long coat. The first Collie was presented at a dog show in 1860. The Collie is well known for its role in the movie “Lassie,” featuring a rough-coated Collie as the main character. The Collie’s talents include herding, search and rescue, guide for the blind, agility, competitive obedience, acting in the movies, and as a guard and watchdog.

Generally healthy dogs. Some lines are prone to PRA, eye defects (Collie eye syndrome) and hip problems leading to acute lameness and arthritis.

Collies may need sunblock on their nose as they are often sensitive to the sun.

Some herding dogs carry a MDR1 gene which makes them sensitive to certain drugs that are otherwise okay to give another dog, but if tested positive for this gene can kill them.

The stiff coat sheds dirt readily and a thorough weekly brushing will keep it in good condition. Take extra care when the soft, dense undercoat is being shed. The smooth variety has a one-inch coat and should be brushed each one to two weeks. If the long-coated variety has a BIG mat, and the dog is not being used for show, the mat may need to be cut out, as opposed to combed out, as to avoid pain to the dog. Bathe or dry shampoo as necessary. The rough Collie sheds heavily twice a year, and the smooth Collie is an average shedder.

The Collie needs plenty of exercise, which includes a daily, long walk. In addition, they would enjoy some romps off the lead in a safe area.

Without a firm, but calm, confident and consistent owner who sets the rules and sticks to them, they can become wilful and stubborn. This breed should be trained gently, but with an air of authority or he will refuse to cooperate. A clean breed, the Collie is relatively easy to housebreak. Some smooth Collies have become successful at water rescue.

  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
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Dachshund dogs

Dachshund

 KEY FACTS

The dachshund is an energetic, lovable dog breed with an endearing personality. This breed of short stature leaves a lasting impression. The dachshund is bred as standard or miniature size, but traits of this breed are similar for both.

 

The dachshund can be a loving companion, lapdog, and even a family dog. Despite its size, the dachshund tends to be quite protective and alert, so the breed can also make an excellent watchdog.

Lifespan:  12 to 15 years

Height: 25- 33cm (10 -13 inches)

Weight: 11-14Kg (25 – 30 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: High

Colours: Black, Black & Tan, Chocolate & Tan, Chocolate & Cream, Blue & Tan, Cream, Tan, Red

Group: Hound Group

Good for apartment living. They are fairly active indoors and will do okay without a garden.

The Dachshund is curious, clever, lively, affectionate, proud, brave and amusing. Devoted to its family, it can be slightly difficult to train and housebreak, but not impossible.

Dachshunds travel well. This little dog needs an owner who understands how to be his pack leader or he will take over the house, and begin to try and tell the owner what to do. If the dog is allowed to take over, many behaviour problems will arise, such as, but not limited to, guarding furniture, separation anxiety, guarding food, toys or other objects, snapping, biting and obsessive barking. It will become unpredictable with children and adults they do not know. If it gets really bad, it may become unpredictable with its owner.

They are usually recommended for older, considerate children, simply because most owners do not display proper pack leadership to small dogs, causing moderate to severe protectiveness, a behaviour that can change if the humans start being their pack leader. If they do get the proper leadership, they can get along well with children.

This breed has an instinct to dig. They are generally okay with other pets; however, once again, without proper leadership from their humans, they can be jealous, irritable, obstinate and very quick to bite, sometimes refusing to be handled. If you allow your little dog to take over your house, the dog will try his hardest to keep all of his humans in line—a weight which should not be placed on any dog’s shoulders, especially one as sweet as a little dog like the Dachshund. These negative traits are not Dachshund traits, they are small dog syndrome traits. Meaning, most owners treat their small dogs like babies, rather than giving them leadership, As well as rules they need to follow along with limits they are, and are not allowed to do, which all dogs instinctually crave. Dachshunds that have human leadership along with a daily pack walk are wonderful family companions with excellent temperaments.

The Dachshund originated in Germany in the early 1600s. Bred to hunt small game such as badger and rabbit, the Dachshund has shortened legs to hunt and follow these animals to ground inside the burrows where they could fight the prey to the death. “Dachs” is the word for badger. Smaller Dachshunds where bred to hunt hare and stoat. Dachshunds have many “terrier” characteristics. They are versatile and courageous dogs and have been known to take on foxes and otters too. The breed’s population dwindled during World War l, but dogs were imported from Germany to the USA and the gene pool once again increased.

Prone to spinal disc problems (Dachshund paralysis), urinary tract problems, heart disease and diabetes. Prone to mast cell tumours. Dachshunds have a tendency to become overweight and lazy. This is a serious health risk, putting added strain on the back.

Longhaired require daily combing and brushings; wirehaired need professional trimming twice a year, and short-haired require regular rubdown with a damp cloth. This breed is an average shedder.

These are active dogs with surprising stamina; they need to be walked daily. They will also enjoy sessions of play in the park or other safe, open areas. Be careful, however, when pedestrians are about because Dachshunds are more likely to be stepped on than more visible dogs. They should be discouraged from jumping, as they are prone to spinal damage.

Positive reinforcement is the best way to train a dachshund. This means rewarding good behaviour with treats and praise, and ignoring or calmly correcting any bad or undesirable behaviour. Basically, dachshunds are much more likely to toilet outside if they get rewards and praise for doing so.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationalez
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
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Dalmatian Dog Breed

Dalmatian

 KEY FACTS

The Dalmatian is a large, strong, muscular dog. The skull is about as wide as it is long, and flat on the top. The muzzle is about the same length as the top of the skull. The stop is moderate but well defined. The nose can be black, brown (liver), blue or a dark grey that looks like black. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The medium-sized round eyes are brown, blue or a combination of both. The ears are set high, hanging down, gradually tapering to a rounded tip. The chest is deep. The base of the tail is level with the topline and tapers to the tip. The feet are round with arched toes. Toenails are white and/or black in black-spotted dogs and brown and/or white in brown spotted dogs. The short coat has fine dense hairs. The symmetrical coat is predominantly white with clearly defined round spots. The spots can be black or brown which are the preferred colours in the show ring, but can also be, lemon, dark blue, tricolored, brindled, solid white or sable. Not all of these colours are accepted into the show ring, but they do occur in the breed. The more defined and well distributed the markings are, the more valued the dog is to the show ring. Puppies are born completely white and the spots develop later.

Lifespan:  12 to 13 years

Height: 50- 60 cm (22 -24 inches)

Weight: 25-30kg (55 – 66 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: spots black or brown, dark blue, tricoloured, brindled or pure white

Group: Gun Dog

A Dalmatian is not an ideal dog for apartment living unless it can be taken out for a brisk walk or run several times a day. They are very active indoors and will do best with at least an average-sized garden. Not suited to living outside in cold climates.

Dalmatians were bred to run under or alongside horse-drawn carriages and therefore have a vast amount of stamina and energy. They do not like to sit around all day with nothing to do. They are playful, happy, easy going and very dedicated. The Dalmatian needs a lot of leadership along with human companionship to be happy. They will not do well left out in the garden all day and have been known to dig crater-size holes. The Dalmatian enjoys playing with children, but if they do not receive enough mental and physical exercise they may become highly-strung, and too excitable for a small child. This build-up of energy causes their minds to become unstable and they can become shy without enough socialization.

They get along well with other pets, but without proper human-to-dog alpha communication where the human clearly tells the dog that he is not in charge and fighting is an unwanted behaviour, they may become aggressive with strange dogs. Quite intelligent, but can be willful if they sense their owners are in the slightest bit meek or passive, and/or if the owner is not properly communicating with the dog. Generally does well with firm, consistent training. The Dalmatian is trainable to a high degree of obedience. They can be trained for defence and are good guard dogs.

Half of the people who adopt a Dalmatian puppy do not keep them past the first year. Young Dalmatians are very energetic, and need a tremendous amount of leadership and exercise. If you give them what they instinctually need, daily walks where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the human, never in front of the person holding the lead, and very stern, but not harsh leadership, they will make a wonderful pet and will calm down after a few years. People who keep them long enough to get past their active stage tend to be very pleased.

If you are thinking about a Dalmatian puppy be sure you have the time, are authority driven and have the energy for them. If you cannot provide this for them they will become very highly-strung, hard to manage and destructive. If you are a very active person who has the time, and knows what it means to be a pack leader then a Dalmatian may be right for you.

There is total disagreement about the origin of this breed. Spotted dogs are known throughout history in Africa, Europe and Asia. The breed may be related to the Pointer. Traces of spotted dogs are found in Egyptian bas-reliefs and Hellenic friezes, so it certainly is an ancient breed.

In 1700 a dog known as the Bengal pointer, like the Dalmatian, existed in England, calling into question the Dalmatian’s Yugoslavian origin. Some claim the Dalmatian is a Croatian breed. Efforts to have it recognized as a Croatian breed had been rejected, up until 1993, when the FCI did finally recognize the Croatian roots of the Dalmatian dog, although they continue to deny Croatia standard patronage rights over the breed.

In the Middle Ages it was used as a hound. The breed became popular as a carriage dog in the 1800s. They trotted beside and among the horses and carriages, very reliably following their masters, guarding the carriages and horses while the master was occupied elsewhere.

Very hardy with great stamina, it was able to easily keep up whether its master was on foot, on horseback, or in the carriage. The versatile Dalmatian has seen many uses, such as a mascot for firemen, war sentinel, draft dog, circus performer, vermin hunter, bird dog, trail hound, retriever, shepherd and as a guard dog.

Deafness in this breed is relatively high; about 10-12% are born deaf. Dalmatian puppies should be BAER-tested for deafness at about 6 weeks old, and totally deaf puppies should be spayed or neutered.

While the breeding of deaf puppies should be avoided, it is very possible to raise a well-adjusted deaf dog.

Prone to urinary stones, as uric acid levels in Dalmatians are in general higher than in any other breed, sometimes causing urinary blockage.

Also prone to skin allergies, such as synthetic fibres in carpets and upholstery.

The Dalmatian sheds all year round but profusely twice a year. Brush frequently to help manage the constant shedding. They do not have a doggy odour and are said to be clean and even avoid puddles. Bathe only when necessary.

This is a very energetic dog with enormous stamina. They need to be taken on daily, long, brisk walks or jogs where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the human holding the lead. Never in front, as instinct tells a dog that the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. In addition, it needs plenty of opportunity to run, preferably off the leash in a safe area.

If these dogs are allowed to get bored, and are not walked or jogged daily, they can become destructive and start to display a wide array of behavioural problems. They love to run!

Born to run, the Dalmatian is a high-energy dog with an endless capacity for exercise.

He loves attention and has a strong desire to please, making him easy to train through positive reinforcement such as food rewards, praise, and play.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club

• UKC = United Kennel Club

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Doberman Dogs

Doberman

 KEY FACTS

The Dobermann is a medium sized, squarely built dog with a compact, muscular body. The head is long and when viewed from the side, looks like a blunt wedge. The top of the skull is flat, and turns into the muzzle with a slight stop. The colour of the nose depends on the colour of the dog’s coat; black on black dogs, dark brown on red dogs, dark grey on blue dogs, dark tan on fawn dogs and pink on white dogs. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The colour of the almond-shaped eyes is various shades of brown, depending on the coat colour of the dog. Note: cropping ears and docking tails is illegal in a lot of countries. Chest is broad and the legs are perfectly straight. The short, hard, thick coat lies flat. Sometimes there is an invisible grey undercoat on the neck.

Lifespan:  up to 13 years

Height: 66- 71cm (26 -28 inches)

Weight: 30-40kg (66 – 88 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: black, black with tan markings, blue-grey, red, fawn and white

Group: Utility Group

The Dobermann will manage in an apartment, if sufficiently exercised, but does best with at least a large garden. Dobermann are very sensitive to the cold and are not suitable to outdoor living. That is why police in areas where it gets cold are not able to use them.

The Dobermann is very keen, super energetic with tremendous strength and stamina. Dobies like to be with their people and are not suited to kennel or outdoor living; they need human interaction and leadership. Loyal, tolerant, dedicated and affectionate with the family. Determined, bold and assertive while working, they are very adaptable, highly skilled and versatile. They are intelligent and very easy to train.  They are an outstanding watch and guard dog and do not need additional protection training.

This breed is not for everyone. The Dobermann needs an owner who is willing and able to display a natural authority over the dog. All family members must be firm, confident and consistent, setting rules and sticking to them. Learn to handle the dog properly, as Dobermans can become stubborn and wilful if allowed to have their own way.

Everything must be on the human’s terms. The dog is the follower, and the humans are the leaders. The dog will appreciate knowing his place in his pack and feel secure about it. He should be thoroughly socialized when young to prevent skittishness.

Mental stimulation and a lot of daily exercise are important in order to produce a happy, stable-minded Dobe. The Doberman needs to be consistently and thoroughly trained. Dobes can be good family dogs if the alpha role belongs to the human and if they receive enough exercise, are well trained and are socialized with children. Although the Doberman has the reputation of being a very aggressive dog, this is just not the case. For example, Dobermans make great therapy dogs. Issues arise when they reside with owners who do not display the proper leadership and/or do not provide enough exercise. They are sweet and gentle with nursing-home patients—tippy-toeing over IV tubing and walking at the resident’s speed (which can be very slow), while at the same time will fiercely defend their masters if it becomes necessary. Dominancy levels vary, even within the same litter and the breed’s temperament will vary greatly depending on how well the owners understand canine behaviour and how willing they are to take the time to provide what the dog instinctually needs.

This is a breed of relatively recent origin. It was developed in Germany in the 1860s, presumably by crossing among the old shorthaired shepherds, German Pinschers, Rottweilers, Beaucerons, Manchester Terriers and Greyhounds. 

The creator of this mixture was a German tax collector named Louis Doberman. Doberman had to travel frequently through bandit-infested areas, and decided to develop a watchdog and bodyguard capable of handling any situation that might arise. 

The breed is named after its originator. The Doberman was first presented at a dog show in 1876. It was immediately a big success. The Doberman has many talents including tracking, watchdog, guarding, police work, military work, search and rescue, therapy work, competitive obedience and Schutzhund.

Prone to possible cervical spondylitis (wobbler syndrome) due to fusion of neck vertebrae and compression of spinal cord; possible inherited blood disorder (Von Willebrands disease); obesity in middle age. 

Also prone to skin issues, bloat, hip dysplasia and congenital heart defects. 

The gene which produces the albino (white) Doberman is said to be the same gene which produced the famous white tigers and lions owned by Siegfried & Roy in Las Vegas. Some also believe the gene is a masking gene, meaning it “takes over” and masks the colour that the dog would be otherwise. White Doberman fanciers say there is no evidence that this gene carries with it any deleterious or adverse health concerns that are sometimes associated with other white animals such as deafness, blindness or unstable minds. Some breeders beg to differ, claiming the gene does cause health issues

The Doberman needs little grooming and are average shedders.

The Doberman is very energetic, with great stamina. They need to be taken on a daily, long walk or jog, and need to be made to heel beside or behind the human holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way and that leader needs to be the humans.

The Doberman is very intelligent with high energy levels, so training is crucial for their development. An unfulfilled Doberman can become very bored and destructive, so they require a high level of commitment and stimulation to keep them happy. 

• ACA = American Canine Association

• ACR = American Canine Registry

• AKC = American Kennel Club

• ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club

• APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.

• CCR = Canadian Canine Registry

• CKC = Canadian Kennel Club

• CKC = Continental Kennel Club

• FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale

• KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain

• NKC = National Kennel Club

• NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club

• UKC = United Kennel Club

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English Setter Dogs

English Setter

 KEY FACTS

The English Setter is a beautiful, long and lean, working gundog. The skull is oval in shape when viewed from above. The muzzle is long and square with a defined stop. The nose has wide nostrils and is either brown or black in colour. The teeth meet in a level or scissors bite. The large, round eyes are dark brown. The ears are set back and low, hanging down even with eye level, covered with silky hair. The large eyes are hazel in colour. The chest is deep, but not too wide or round. The tail starts at the topline, thicker at the base tapering to a point with straight, silky feathering. The coat is flat, silky and wavy, with feathering on the tail, back of the legs, underside, abdomen, chest and ears. Coat colours include various markings. The speckling on the unique coat can be light to heavy and of any size.

Lifespan:  10 to 12 years

Height: 61- 69 cm (24 -27 inches)

Weight: 25-36kg (55 – 80 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: white with blue, lemon, orange, or brown, tricolour (blue, white brown)

Group: Sporting Group

Not recommended for apartment living and does best with a large garden.

The English Setter is a quick, quiet worker with an excellent nose and a coat that keeps the dog comfortable in both hot and cold weather.

A very gentle, calm dog. Friendly and excellent with children, they are easy going, loving all the affection they can get. Exuberant and vivacious outdoors, but relatively inactive indoors.

With meek owners they will become wilful. Can be difficult to housebreak.

Rules, structure and training should start early to prevent development of bad habits. They need authoritative, calm, but firm, confident and consistent owners, but should never be harshly treated. They are sensitive to the tone of one’s voice and will not listen if they sense that they are stronger minded than their owner, however they will also not respond well to harsh discipline. Owners need to be calm, yet possess an air of natural authority.

They need a lot of structure and enjoy playing with other dogs.

English Setters are adequate watchdogs. They like to roam, dig and are good jumpers. There are two types, field lines and show lines (bench). Field types are bred for hunting and field trial work and are generally somewhat smaller and lighter. The bench type is bred for conformation shows. Both types are energetic and need daily exercise, but field lines have a higher energy level and need even more exercise. The dominancy level in this breed varies even within the same litter. If you are not the type of person who can display a natural air of calm, but firm authority, then be sure to choose a pup that is more submissive. The temperament of both show and field lines vary widely, depending upon how the owners treat the dog and how much and what type of exercise they provide. The English Setter can become a nuisance barker if left out in the backyard for long periods of time and if owners do not provide enough mental and physical stimulation and/or leadership. Dogs that bark a lot need to be told this is not acceptable and need their bodies and minds challenged. Some English Setters may be light droolers, although not obsessively like some of the Mastiff type dogs.

The first strains of setters were developed in France in 1500, obtained from the Spanish pointer and the French pointer. These early setters were called “Setting Spaniels,” named after the way they would crouch down after finding the pray to allow the hunter to throw a net over it. In the early 1800s they were brought to Great Britain where a breeder named Sir Edward Laverack developed them into the English Setter we know today using early French hunting dogs. He bred out the trait of crouching down more to an almost sitting stance, so the dogs would be easier seen by the hunters who now had guns. The English Setter is often called the Laverack Setter. The word “setter” comes from the way the dogs appear to almost be sitting down when they discover game. Laverack’s dogs are the foundation stock for many of today’s top show dogs. The Llewellin Setter was bred out of English Setter lines by an English breeder named Llewellin. The English Setter’s talents include hunting, tracking, retrieving, pointing, watchdog and agility.

Prone to hip dysplasia. Be careful not to overfeed this breed, for they tend to gain weight easily. English Setter females are prone to false pregnancies. Prone to mast cell tumours.

Regular combing and brushing of the soft, flat, medium-length coat is all that is required to keep it in excellent condition. It is important to check for burrs and tangles and to give extra care when the dog is shedding. Bathe or dry shampoo only when necessary. Trim the hair on the bottom of the feet and clip the nails. This breed is an average shedder.

All setters need a daily long, brisk walk or jog, where the dog is made to heel beside the human holding the lead, or they will become restless and difficult to manage. Whether we humans realize it or not, a dog that is allowed to walk ahead of the human holding the lead will instinctively believe he is a pack leader to humans, as in a dog’s mind, the leader leads the way. In addition, they will also enjoy running free in the safety of an enclosed garden.

The English Setter is an easy-going soul, although some members of this breed can be a bit rambunctious if not properly trained early on.

These dogs are both loving and wilful, a somewhat challenging combination for the average pet owner. Inside, the English Setter is fairly docile and compliant, although housebreaking takes some major effort on your part.

Outside is a different matter altogether. Here, the Setter’s field instincts take over, and your pet will be more focused on the birds than he is on you. Some owners find digging and jumping fences to be a frequent problem with these dogs, making it difficult to keep them on the property.

Here’s the crux of the matter: English Setters, for all their energy and intelligence, are really rather soft in temperament, and take any sign of displeasure from you deeply to heart. These are not dogs that do well with being reprimanded for their mistakes. Instead, training is best achieved through positive reinforcement, such as used in the clicker training method.

Clicker training involves marking the exact moments of your dog’s desirable behaviours with a click and instant reward. Unwanted behaviours are simply not rewarded in any form. The premise is that your dog will learn to repeat behaviours that bring treats or praise in favour of wasting time on behaviours that bring him nothing good, and many owners have found this method successful.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
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English Springer Spaniel Dogs

English Springer Spaniel

 KEY FACTS

The English Springer Spaniel is a medium-sized, compact dog. The head is in proportion with the body. The broad skull is medium in length and flat on the top. The length of the head is about the same as the length of the neck. The muzzle is about the same length as the skull, with a moderate stop. The nose is either liver or black, depending on the dog’s coat colour. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The medium-sized, oval-shaped eyes are either dark hazel in liver and white dogs or dark brown in black and white dogs. The long, wide, pendant ears hang close to the cheeks and reach the nose when pulled forward. The chest is deep. The back is level with the length, about the same as the height of the dog from the ground to the withers. The front legs are straight, and the feet are compact. The tail is usually docked. Note: docking tails is illegal in most parts of Europe. The coat is medium in length with feathering over the legs, ears, cheeks and brisket.

Coat colour comes in liver and white, and black and white, predominantly white with black or liver markings, blue or liver roan, a tricolour pattern of black and white or liver and white with tan markings, usually found on eyebrows, cheeks, inside of the ears and under the tail. The white areas of the coat may have ticking.

Lifespan:  12 to 14 years

Height: 48- 56 cm (19 -21 inches)

Weight: 20-25kg (45 – 55 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: High

Colours: (See description)

Group: Gun Dog Group

Not recommended for apartment living and does best with a large garden.

English Springers are even-tempered, gentle, friendly, and sociable dogs that make great child companions.

Intelligent, skilful, willing and obedient and a quick learner. Brave, playful, energetic, pleasant and cheerful, their tails are seemingly always in motion. They are affectionate, good natured and sincere; this dog loves everyone.

There are two types, field lines and show lines (bench). Field types are bred for hunting and field trial work.

The bench type is bred for conformation shows and has more liver or black on its coat, and the coats are longer and fuller.

The field type has more white on its coat than the show type and a lot less hair.

Both types are intelligent and energetic and need daily exercise, but field lines have a higher energy level and need even more exercise.

The dominancy level in this breed varies even within the same litter. If you are not the type of person who can display a natural air of calm, but firm authority, then be sure to choose a pup that is more submissive.

The temperament of both show and field lines vary widely, depending upon how the owners treat the dog and how much and what type of exercise they provide.

They love water and may constantly get themselves wet and muddy. Usually they are good with other pets but since they are natural fowl hunters they should not be trusted with birds.

They can be sometimes argumentative with other dogs if owners do not communicate clearly who is in charge.

The English Springer Spaniel is the founder of all the English hunting spaniels.

During the Renaissance, it was considered the ideal companion for the European hunter. Its popularity in America began in 1700.

The Clumber, the Sussex, the Welsh Springer, the Field, the Irish Water, and the Cocker Spaniel all developed out of the English Springer Spaniel.

Once considered the same breed as the Cocker Spaniel, the dogs were born in the same litter.

The smaller dogs were the Cockers and were used to hunt woodcock.

The larger dogs in the litter, the English Springers, were used to flush out and spring on the game, hence where the dog gets its name.

Both size dogs were and still are good at hunting on land and water and good at work in brush, also making a fine retriever.

It was not until 1902 that the Kennel Club of England recognized the English Springer Spaniel as a separate breed from the Cocker Spaniel.

The English Springer Spaniel Field Trial Association was formed in 1924 and field trials were held for the first time. Their talents include hunting, tracking, retrieving, watchdog, agility, competitive obedience and performing tricks.

Some English Springers are prone to hip dysplasia, PRA, which affects the eyes, PFK, a blood disorder, epilepsy, and HD. They gains weight easily; do not overfeed.

The coat of the field-type Springer is fairly easy to maintain and regular brushing with a stiff bristle brush will keep it looking good; the show-type Springers’ coat needs more attention. Both need baths and dry shampoo only when necessary, but check the ears regularly for signs of infection.

Springers with longer coats will mat if not brushed often and particular attention needs to be given to the ears and the feet. If the hair is not kept shaved on the underside of the ears, it can lead to chronic ear infections.

The hair on the feet needs to be trimmed to prevent burrs and foxtails from becoming imbedded. The longer coats will pick up burrs and branches and need to be combed out after outside exercise or it will mat badly.

The show type Springer does not have as much coat as the American Cocker Spaniel, but it needs regular attention. This breed is a constant average shedder.

Springers enjoy as much exercise as you can give them. They need lots of it to be happy. They should have chances to take daily long walks or jogs where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the human, never in front, as in a dog’s mind, the leader leads the way. They will also benefit from a run and play off the leash. They love to retrieve and swim. These dogs perform very well in both agility skills trials and obedience competitions.

Springers do best when they are with people who can provide them with some kind of consistent structure where the rules are made clear.

Negative issues can arise with meek owners and/or owners who do not provide daily mental and physical exercise. This can cause frustration in the dog and they may become destructive and start to bark a lot if left alone.

If a Springer does not see the owners as strong authority figures they will begin to believe it is their job to take over the leadership role. If you allow this to happen the dog can become a biter in an attempt to keep the humans in line.

Adolescent Springers need a lot of authoritative guidance. They are sensitive to the tone of one’s voice and will not listen if they sense that they are stronger minded than their owner, however they will also not respond well to harsh discipline.

Owners need to be calm, yet possess an air of natural authority. At this age they can be extra high-energy, testing and challenging the leadership position.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CCR = Canadian Canine Registry
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
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Finnish Spitz dogs

Finnish Spitz

 KEY FACTS

In appearance, the Finnish Spitz may remind you of a fox. The body is muscular and square. The head is flat between the ears, rounding slightly at the forehead. The narrow muzzle has a pronounced stop and is wider at the base where it attaches to the skull, tapering to a point. The nose and lips are black. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The dark, almond-shaped eyes have black rims. The ears are set high, erect and open toward the front of the dog. The legs are straight when viewed from the front. The topline is level. The chest is deep, reaching to the elbows. The plumed tail curls up over the back and down the side with an abundant amount of hair. The catlike feet are round. The double coat has a short, soft, dense undercoat with a long, straight, harsh outer coat. Puppies are born dark and lighten to a reddish colour as they get older.

Lifespan:  12 to 15 years

Height: 38- 51 cm (15 -20 inches)

Weight: 14-16 kg (31 -35 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: High

Colours: golden-red, red-brown and yellowish-red to honey-coloured, with or without small white markings

Group: Non-Sporting Group

The Finnish Spitz will do okay in an apartment and without a garden provided it gets enough exercise. It is relatively inactive indoors and prefers cool climates.

The Finnish Spitz is friendly, active, playful, keen and courageous. It can be obedience trained, if the owner has an air of natural, gentle, calm, authority to them.

The Finnish Spitz is renowned as a hunting dog, and also makes a great companion for family members of all ages, especially children and older adults.

This breed does not fully mature until it is about 3 to 4 years old.

The Finnish Spitz is aware of its place in the dominance hierarchy, and owners need to clearly communicate to the dog that its place is below all humans. Finnish Spitzes that believe they are higher in the order can become protective, demanding affection and attention, become domineering and can be fairly dog aggressive. Meek or passive owners will find them hard to manage.

Socialize them well or they can be reserved and sometimes aloof with strangers.

They are generally good with other pets.

This breed is lively and curious, though not overwhelmingly so. They are loyal to their own families, but require much consistent patience and understanding. They are good watchdogs, but are not guard dogs.

In Finland the Finnish Spitz is nicknamed the “barking bird dog.” They were bred to bark a lot and even participate in barking contests, where it is not uncommon for a dog to bark over 150 times in one minute. They were bred to bark (which can sound like a yodel) continuously to point the hunter in the direction of the game bird, therefore you will never get this dog to be totally silent.

If you leave the dog outside for long periods of time without the proper exercise or human leadership it can become a nuisance. Teach this dog enough is enough and to limit its barking. Do not allow it to bark at you, as a dog that barks at its owner is displaying dominance behaviours. With the right owner they can make wonderful pets.

The Finnish Spitz dogs were originally known as the Suomenpystrykorva (the Finnish Cock-Eared Dog) and the Finnish Barking Birddogs. About 2000 years ago they were brought from the Volga River area of central Russia to what is now Finland, and are considered the National dog of Finland, and are mentioned in several patriotic songs. They were used to hunt small game. When the dog would find their pray they would alert the hunter with their distinctive yodel type, ringing bark, pointing with their head in the direction the animal was in. The Finnish Spitz makes a good bird dog.

Generally healthy

The Finnish Spitz has a self-cleaning coat, as do most other Arctic dogs. Regular grooming with brush and comb is still necessary to remove dead hair. The coat does not have a doggie odour. This breed is a seasonally heavy shedder.

The Finnish Spitz needs plenty of exercise, including daily, long walks or a jog, where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the human holding the lead, never in front, as instinct tells a dog the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. With enough proper exercise, it will be content to lie at your feet at night. This breed makes an excellent jogging companion.

These easy-to-train dogs are more adept at forming an association between a prompt (such as the word “sit”), an action (sitting), and a consequence (getting a treat) very quickly. Other dogs need more time, patience, and repetition during training.

Many breeds are intelligent but approach training with a “What’s in it for me?” attitude, in which case you’ll need to use rewards and games to teach them to want to comply with your requests.

  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
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French Bulldogs

French Bulldog

 KEY FACTS

The French Bulldog is a sturdy, compact, stocky little dog, with a large square head that has a rounded forehead. The muzzle is broad and deep with a well-defined stop. The nose is black, but may be lighter in lighter coloured dogs. The upper lips hang down over the lower lips. The teeth meet in an underbite and the lower jaw is square and deep. The round, prominent eyes are set wide apart and are dark in colour. The ears stand erect, are broad at the base narrowing in a triangular shape and rounded at the tips. The height at the withers to the ground should be approximately the same as the length from withers to the base of the tail. The tail is either straight or corkscrew. The chest is broad and deep with the front of the dog being wider than the back end, forming a pear shape. The medium-fine coat is short and smooth. The skin is loose, forming wrinkles around the head and shoulders. It can have a black mask, brindle markings, be piebald, spotted and/or have white markings.

Lifespan:  10 to 12 years

Height: 30 cm (12 inches)

Weight: 10 – 13 kg (22 -28 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: High

Colours: Brindle (and white), cream (and white), fawn (and white), fawn (and white) brindle, white, fawn, black, black and fawn, black and white, fawn and black, fawn brindle and white and grey and white

Group: Non-Sporting Group

Frenchie’s are good for apartment life. They can be fairly active indoors and will do fine without a garden. They do not do well in temperature extremes.

The French Bulldog is a pleasant, easy-care companion who is playful, alert and affectionate. It is enthusiastic and lively, without being yappy and loud. Curious, sweet and absolutely hilarious, it has a very comical personality and loves to clown around. It is bright and easygoing.

The Frenchie gets along fairly well with strangers and other animals and enjoys being with its owner. It plays well with other dogs.

Those Frenchies that are allowed to believe they are alpha may become dog aggressive. This breed needs leadership and will not thrive without it.

The Frenchie cannot be owned and ignored. When it senses an owner is meek or passive toward it, it will become very stubborn and even snappish.

They can be trained if the owner is calm, but firm, consistent and patient. Proper human to canine communication is essential. Do not give them affection or sweet talk them if they are displaying any type of unwanted behaviours; instead correct them sternly with an air of calm authority.

French Bulldogs are clean, and most will try to avoid puddles. Most cannot swim so take caution around water. This breed does best with considerate children who know how to display proper leadership. This breed may drool and slobber; however a good percentage of them do not. They are also a relentless hunter of mice. Do not allow this sweet little bully to develop Small Dog Syndrome.

The French Bulldog originated in 19th Century Nottingham, England, where lace makers decided to make a smaller, miniature, lap version of the English Bulldog that was referred to as a “toy” bulldog. In the 1860s, when the Industrial Revolution drove the craftsmen to France, they took their dogs with them. The toy bulldogs became popular in France and were given the name the “French Bulldog.” The breed eventually made its way back to England for dog shows.

French Bulldogs are prone to joint diseases, spinal disorders, heart defects and eye problems. Dams often have to deliver pups by caesarean section, because pups have relatively large heads. They often have respiratory problems. They tend to wheeze and snore and have trouble in hot weather. Prone to heatstroke. An overweight Frenchie may have trouble breathing, because of a swollen abdomen. Do not overfeed this breed. Putting them under anaesthesia is risky because of their breathing issues. French Bulldogs are high maintenance and potential owners need to be aware that their vet bills may be high. Take this into consideration before choosing a Frenchie puppy.

Very little grooming is needed. Regular brushings will do. This breed is an average shedder.

The French Bulldog needs to be taken on a daily walk, where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as instinct tells a dog the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. Simply running around a back garden is not going to satisfy their ‘migration’ instinct. Take care in hot weather. They love to run and play and can play for hours if you let them. Some have higher energy levels than others.

French Bulldogs fall in around the average dog for training due to a stubborn streak some possess. They are a very clean breed that tends to like things tidy, which usually makes toilet training easier.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
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German Shepherd Dogs

German Shepherd

 KEY FACTS

The German Shepherd Dog is well proportioned and very strong. The GSD has a sturdy, muscular, slightly elongated body with a light, solid bone structure. The head should be in proportion to its body, and the forehead a little rounded. The nose is most often black, however, blue or liver still do sometimes occur, but are considered a fault and cannot be shown. The teeth meet in a strong scissors bite. The dark eyes are almond-shaped, and never protruding. The ears are wide at the base, pointed, upright and turned forward. The ears of puppies under six months may droop slightly. The bushy tail reaches below the hocks and hangs down when the dog is at rest. The front legs and shoulders are muscular and the thighs are thick and sturdy. The round feet have very hard soles. There are three varieties of the German Shepherd: double coat, plush coat and longhaired coat. The white GSD dogs are recognized as a separate breed by some clubs and are being called the Swiss Shepherd. A Tricolour has also occurred in a single GSD bloodline that is now being called a Panda Shepherd. A Panda is 35% white the remainder of colour is black and tan, and has no white German Shepherds in its ancestry.

Lifespan:  13 years

Height: 60- 65 cm (24 -26 inches)

Weight: 35 – 40 kg (77 -85 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: black with tan, sable or all black, white, blue and liver

Group: Herding Group

The German Shepherd will not thrive in an apartment unless sufficiently exercised. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with a large garden

Often used as working dogs, German Shepherds are courageous, keen, alert and fearless. Cheerful, obedient and eager to learn. Tranquil, confident, serious and clever.

GSDs are extremely faithful, and brave. They will not think twice about giving their lives for their human pack. They have a high learning ability. German Shepherds love to be close to their families, but can be wary of strangers. This breed needs his people and should not be left isolated for long periods of time.

They only bark when they feel it is necessary. Often used as police dogs, the German Shepherd has a very strong protective instinct, and is extremely loyal to its handler. Socialize this breed well starting at puppyhood. Aggression and attacks on people are due to poor handling and training. Problems arise when an owner allows the dog to believe he is pack leader over humans and/or does not give the dog the mental and physical daily exercise it needs to be stable. This breed needs owners who are naturally authoritative over the dog in a calm, but firm, confident and consistent way.

A stable, well-adjusted, and trained dog is for the most part generally good with other pets and excellent with children in the family. They must be firmly trained in obedience from an early age. German Shepherds with passive owners and/or whose instincts are not being met can become timid, skittish and may be prone to fear biting and develop a guarding issue. They should be trained and socialized from an early age. German Shepherds will not listen if they sense that they are stronger minded than their owner, however they will also not respond well to harsh discipline.

Owners need to have an air of natural authority to their demeanour. Do not treat this dog as if he were human. Learn canine instincts and treat the dog accordingly.

German Shepherds are one of the smartest and most trainable breeds. With this highly skilled working dog comes a drive to have a job and a task in life and a consistent pack leader to show them guidance. They need somewhere to channel their mental and physical energy. This is not a breed that will be happy simply lying around your living room or locked out the back. The breed is so intelligent and learns so readily that it has been used as a sheepdog, guard dog, in police work, as a guide for the blind, in search and rescue service, and in the military. The German Shepherd also excels in many other dog activities including Schutzhund, tracking, obedience, agility, flyball and ring sport. His fine nose can sniff out drugs and intruders, and can alert handlers to the presence of underground mines in time to avoid detonation, or gas leaks in a pipe buried 15 feet underground. The German Shepherd is also a popular show and family companion.

In Karlsruhe, Germany, Captain Max von Stephanitz and other dedicated breeders produced a responsive, obedient and handsome German Shepherd using longhaired, shorthaired and wire-haired local herding and farm dogs from Wurtemberg, Thurginia and Bavaria. The dogs were presented at Hannover in 1882, and the shorthaired variety was first presented in Berlin in 1889. In April 1899, von Stephanitz registered a dog named Horan as the first Deutsche Schäferhunde, which means “German Shepherd Dog” in English. Until 1915, both longhaired and wire-haired varieties were shown. The German Shepherd Dogs used in movies Rin-Tin-Tin and Strongheart brought a lot of attention to the breed, making it very popular.

Indiscriminate breeding has led to hereditary diseases such as hip and elbow dysplasia, blood disorders, digestive problems, bloat, epilepsy, chronic eczema, keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), dwarfism and flea allergies. Also prone to splenic tumours (tumours on the spleen), DM (degenerative myelitis), EPI (exocrine pancreatic insufficiency), and perianal fistulas and Von Willebrand’s disease.

This breed sheds bits of hair constantly and is a seasonally heavy shedder. They should be brushed daily or you will have hair all over your home. Bathe only when necessary; over bathing can cause skin irritation from oil depletion. Check ears and trim claws regularly.

German Shepherd Dogs love strenuous activity, preferably combined with training of some kind, for these dogs are very intelligent and crave a good challenge. They need to be taken on a daily, brisk, long walk, jog or run alongside you. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. Most shepherds love to play ball or Frisbee. Ten to fifteen minutes of fetching along with daily pack walks will tire your dog out quite nicely as well as give him a sense of purpose. Whether it is ball chasing, Frisbee catching, obedience training, participation in a canine playgroup or just taking long walks/jogs, you must be willing to provide some form of daily, constructive exercise. The daily exercise must always include daily walks/jogs to satisfy the dog’s migration instinct. If under-exercised and/or mentally challenged, this breed can become restless and destructive. Does best with a job to do.

German Shepherds are obedient, making them easier to train compared to other dog breeds. Not only do German Shepherd perform well in task training, obedience training wouldn’t be any problem for them as well. They will listen and obey to your commands.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • GSDCA = German Shepherd Dog Club of America
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  •  
  •  
Giant Schnauzer Dogs

Giant Schnauzer

 KEY FACTS

The Giant Schnauzer is a large, powerful, compact dog. It looks like a larger version of the Standard Schnauzer. The dog’s height is the same as the length, giving it a square look. The head is strong and rectangular in appearance. The muzzle is the same length as the top of the head. The stop is slight. The large nose is black. The lips are black and do not overlap. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The oval eyes are medium-sized, deep-set and dark. The ears are set high on the head. The ears are V-shaped, carried close to the head. The back is straight. The front legs are straight when viewed from all sides. The tail is set high. The double coat has a wiry, dense hard, outer coat with a soft undercoat. The hair stands slightly up off the back, with coarser, longer, bushy whiskers, beard and eyebrows.

Lifespan:  13 – 15 years

Height: 66- 71 cm (26 -28 inches)

Weight: 27 – 48 kg (60 -105 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: Very High

Colours: solid black and salt and pepper

Group: Working Group

The Giant Schnauzer is not suited for apartment life. It is fairly active indoors and will do best with acreage.

The Giant Schnauzer is an intelligent, versatile working dog that will be calm with enough exercise. Reliable, brave, loyal, bold and vigorous, it loves to be with its owner at all times. It is easy to train, responding best to firm, calm consistency with a positive attitude, rewarding good behaviour. If the Giant Schnauzer is properly trained and well exercised with a firm owner, it makes a very good pet. The objective in training this dog is to achieve pack leader status. It is a natural instinct for a dog to have an order in its pack. When we humans live with dogs, we become their pack. The entire pack cooperates under a single leader. Lines are clearly defined and rules are set. You and all other humans MUST be higher up in the order than the dog. That is the only way your relationship can be a success. Giant Schnauzers tend to be on the dominant side and need an owner who understands canine behaviours and knows how to display authority, in a calm, but stern, confident manner and be consistent about it. Without it, they may become overprotective and serious, with a hard-headed temperament, as they believe they are alpha to humans.

Socialize well around many different people to avoid them becoming suspicious of everyone they are not familiar with. Through absolute consistency, you need to show them you mean what you say. They are tremendous guards, and their large size alone is a deterrent to trouble. Giants that know their place is below humans, are well socialized, and that receive enough daily mental and physical exercise will usually love everyone; sweet-natured goofballs.

Some of the great qualities of Giants are that they can excel at obedience, agility, carting and protection work. If properly trained, they are dogs that can do it all. They need an owner who displays consistent leadership, or they will feel it is their job to take over as top dog, causing them to become dominant with other dogs. If not given the proper amount of exercise and left to their own devices, this breed can turn very destructive, if their energy and busy minds are not channelled properly. Since they are one of the very few large breeds with a non-shed coat, they are attractive, but if not with an owner who knows how to display consistent leadership, they are often given up before the dog reaches age two. They can be fairly reserved with strangers and should be socialized extensively both with other dogs and people, preferably starting when the dog is a young puppy. They are usually good with other pets. Giants have been bred for generations as guard and watch dogs. They are huge and have a relentless, imposing bark when they hear, see or perceive anything out of the ordinary.

The Giant Schnauzer originated in the Wurttenberg and Bavaria sections of Germany. During the years around the turn of the century, both smooth German Pinscher and coarse-haired Schnauzer pups appeared in the same litters. The German Pinscher Schnauzer Club initiated a policy requiring proof of three generations of pure coarse-haired Schnauzer coats for registration. This quickly helped set type and made them a distinct breed from the German Pinscher. These Schnauzers were given the name Standard Schnauzer. These Standard Schnauzers were crossed with the black Great Dane and the Bouvier des Flandres to form the Giant Schnauzer breed. The Schnauzer name derived from the German word “Schnauze,” which means “muzzle.” The Giant Schnauzer is called the “Riesenschnauzer” in Germany, which means “the giant.” The Giant Schnauzer was used as a cattle driving dog in Bavaria, and as a guard dog by the police and military and excels at Schutzhund.

Giants are more prone to cancer than most breeds, especially toe cancer which kills many Giants annually even if caught early. They are at increased risk of bloat. Epilepsy and hip dysplasia are common in this breed.

The wiry coat is reasonably easy to look after, but the undercoat is dense and it will become matted unless it is combed or brushed weekly with a short wire brush. Clip out knots and brush first with the grain, then against the grain to lift the coat. The animal should be clipped all over to an even length at least four times a year and ear care continually is important. A person can easily learn how to do it themselves. Pet dogs are generally clipped, and show dogs are usually hand-stripped, which is the process of hand plucking the outer guard hairs either with your fingers or a stripping knife. Trim around the eyes and ears with a blunt-nosed scissor and clean the whiskers after meals. They have no doggie odour and shed little to no hair.

Giants have a huge need for exercise and if not vigorously done at least twice daily they bounce off the walls and can be difficult to deal with, even a very well trained one; they have to expend the excess energy they were originally bred for or they just can’t settle at night. They need to be taken on a daily, brisk, long walk, jog or run alongside you when you bicycle, at least once a day combined with an additional walk or another type of exercise. These energetic dogs will take as much exercise as they can get, and just love play sessions during which they can run free. If you get a Giant, plan on daily long walks, running, hiking, biking, swimming, or to get involved in agility (obstacle course), advanced obedience, Schutzhund (protection), carting, tracking, or similar canine activity. If you do not have time to devote to any of these, this is not the breed for you.

Giants are deeply loyal to their families and instinctively territorial. Because they learn easily, you can even train Giant Schnauzers to differentiate between welcome visitors and everyone else.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
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Greyhound Dogs

Greyhound

 KEY FACTS

The Greyhound is a tall, slender dog with a short, fine coat. The head is long and narrow, wide between the ears, with a long tapering muzzle. There is no stop. The small ears are held back and folded, and are semi-perked when they are excited. The eyes are dark in colour. The slightly arched neck is long. The legs are long with the front legs being perfectly straight. The chest is wide and deep. The long tail tapers with a slight upward curve.

Lifespan:  10 – 12 years

Height: 71- 76 cm (28 -30 inches)

Weight: 29 – 36 kg (65 -80 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: All colours

Group: Hound Group

The Greyhound will do okay in an apartment if it gets enough exercise. It is relatively inactive indoors and a small  garden will suffice. Greyhounds are sensitive to the cold but do well in cold climates as long as they wear a coat outside. Do not let this dog off the leash unless in a safe area. They have a strong chase instinct and if they spot an animal such as a rabbit they just might take off. They are so fast you will not be able to catch them.

The Greyhound is brave and devoted. Intelligent, laid-back, charming and loving, its character is often undervalued because of its reserved behaviour toward strangers and even its master.

Greyhounds are sensitive to the tone of one’s voice and will not listen if they sense that they are stronger minded than their owner, however they will also not respond well to harsh discipline. Owners need to be calm, yet possess an air of natural authority.

Socialize well to prevent timidity. As a rule, they are gentle and even-tempered—both racing lines and show lines. Most Greyhounds have a definite prey drive. It is instinctive for these dogs to chase anything that moves quickly. They are extremely fast and some will kill cats and other domestic animals, although this is not the majority (only about 20% of ex-racers are too “keen” on chasing prey to ever be safe with small animals). About 10% are immediately okay due to low prey instinct, and the rest can be trained to leave cats and other small pets in the home alone.

They seldom present difficulties with other dogs and are normally good with children, though they do not usually like rough play, and would not be a good choice for young children who are looking for a playmate.

Indoors, these dogs are calm and sociable to a point where they can even be considered lazy. They bond strongly with their own people, have tremendous stamina, and do not bark much. Show lines tend to be of a different body style than racing lines, and are often more angulated. Racing lines are bred for performance, but often a good by-product is that they are friendly, outgoing dogs that make wonderful pets when their racing days are over.

Greyhounds are not particularly vigilant. Show lines tend to be a bit heavier and bred more for temperament than racing lines, which are bred for speed. However, racing lines also make wonderful pets. There are hundreds of adoption groups all over the world to place these gentle, loving dogs when they retire. Retired racing Greyhounds are not usually difficult to housebreak. They are already crate trained from the track, so it doesn’t take them long to learn that they are not to “go” in the house.

The Greyhound needs an even-tempered, gentle but firm loving owner who knows how to consistently communicate the rules of the home. A Greyhound that knows his place in his pack and what is expected of him is a happy Greyhound.

This very ancient breed is the fastest dog in the world and can reach speeds of over 40 miles per hour (65 km/h). Carvings of the Greyhound were found in tombs in Egypt dating back to 2900 B.C. They are thought to have originally descended from the Arabian Sloughi and brought to England by traders before 900 AD. They were one of the first dogs ever to be shown in a dog show. The Greyhound’s natural quarry are the rabbit and hare, however it has also been used to hunt stag, deer, fox and wild boar. The dog’s speed along with its keen eyesight helped it excel at its work. The dogs were able to chase and catch the pray without stopping to rest. Today there are two types of Greyhounds being bred: Show lines, which conform to the written standard and racing lines, bred for speed. After retiring from a racing career, these dogs were often destroyed. With the dedicated efforts of Greyhound Rescue this practice has greatly reduced and the most mellow-tempered Greyhounds are found homes. Greyhound’s talents include hunting, sighting, watchdog, racing, agility and lure coursing.

Prone to bloat. It is better to feed them 2 or 3 small meals rather than one large one. They are sensitive to drugs, including insecticides. It is said that they are also prone to hypothyroidism, however it is also believed that a Greyhounds’ thyroid levels are naturally lower than most dogs. There is only one way to truly confirm if a greyhound actually has hypothyroidism, and that is to have a complete thyroid panel done.

The smooth, shorthaired coat is very easy to groom. Simply comb and brush with a firm bristle brush, and dry shampoo only when necessary. This breed is an average shedder.

Greyhounds that are kept as pets should have regular opportunities to run free on open ground in a safe area, as well as daily long, brisk walks, where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead. In a dog’s mind the leader leads the way and that leader needs to be the human. Greyhounds love a regular routine.

Greyhounds are very gentle and sensitive dogs. Therefore, the only recommended training is reward based. Check with your potential dog trainer if they only use reward-based methods.

Dogs learn quickly if they are rewarded for good behaviour and you will be amazed at how this approach can also be used to stop undesirable behaviours such as jumping up.

  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • APRI = American Pet Registry, Inc.
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
Havanese dogs

Havanese

 KEY FACTS

The Havanese gives a rugged impression in a little dog. The legs are strong and allow for free and easy movement. The dark eyes and long tail are covered with long, silky hair. The profuse coat varies from wavy to curly to corded. The Havanese is a double-coated breed with soft hair, both on the outer coat and undercoat. The adult coat has a pearly sheen. Some Havanese carry a shorthaired recessive gene. If two adults with this recessive gene have a litter of puppies, it is possible that some of the puppies will be born with smooth coats. A Havanese with a short coat cannot be shown, as it is a serious fault in the show arena. Some have nicknamed the Havanese born with short coats Shavanese. Eye rims, nose and lips are solid black on all colours except the true chocolate dog. In some European countries the black and chocolate dogs were not always recognized, but the black dogs have been recognized for several years, and the chocolate dogs are now recently recognized. The gait is unique, lively and ”springy,” which accentuates the happy character of the Havanese. Tail is carried up over the back when gaiting. The breed is of solid physical type and sound constitution. The Havanese is sturdy, and while a small breed, it is neither fragile nor overdone.

Lifespan:  14 – 15 years

Height: 20- 28 cm (8 -11 inches)

Weight: 3 – 6 kg (7 -13 pounds)

Size: Small

Energy: Average

Colours: cream, gold, white, silver, blue and black. Also parti and tricolour

Group: Toy Group

Havanese are good for apartment life. They are very active indoors and will do okay without a garden. Havanese are born to live in your home, and not in an outdoor kennel, but at the same time, they require plenty of exercise.

Havanese are natural companion dogs, gentle and responsive. They become very attached to their human families and are excellent with children.

Very affectionate and playful with a high degree of intelligence, these cheerful dogs are very sociable and will get along with everyone including people, dogs, cats and other pets.

They are easy to obedience train. This curious dog loves to observe what is going on. It is sensitive to the tone of one’s voice and will not listen if it senses that it is stronger minded than its owner, however it will also not respond well to harsh discipline. Owners need to be calm, yet possess an air of natural authority.

The Havanese has a long reputation of being a circus dog, probably because it learns quickly and enjoys doing things for people. Few tend to bark a lot, as they can be taught not to do this; it is not their nature to bark a lot. It is best to teach them not to bark unnecessarily while they are still young to prevent it from becoming a habit.

Havanese are good watch dogs, making sure to alert you when a visitor arrives, but will quickly welcome the guest once it sees you welcome them. Some dogs that have not been properly socialized may exhibit a degree of shyness around strangers, but this is not characteristic of the breed. Havanese live for your every word and gesture.

They should be neither timid nor aggressive—if they are, that is a result of a human who is not providing proper pack leadership and/or not treating the dog like a canine, but rather a human. The Havanese shows no cowardice, in spite of its size. Do not allow the Havanese to develop Small Dog Syndrome.

Following the French, Cuban and Russian revolutions, the Havanese were almost extinct. Now rare in Cuba, the breed has been facing a crisis through the 1900s, but is presently on the rise in popularity, having some dedicated believers in the breed who are actively campaigning for its preservation.

This dog belongs to the family of dogs called Bichons. The French word Bichon Frise means “fleecy dog” or “curly lap dog.” “Bichon” refers to the bearded appearance of the breed, as the word “barbichon” means little beard, while the word “Frise” means curly.

The Bichon Havanese originated in Cuba from an earlier breed known as Blanquito de la Habana (also called Havanese Silk Dog—a now extinct breed). The Bichon Havanese adorned and enlivened the homes of aristocratic Cubans during the 18th and 19th centuries. Bichon lapdogs were being brought to Cuba in 17th century from Europe; they adapted to the climate and customs of Cuba. Eventually, these conditions gave birth to a different dog, smaller than its predecessors, with a completely white coat of a silkier texture. This dog was the Blanquito de la Habana.

In the 19th century, the Cubans took to liking the French and German Poodles, which were crossed with the existing Blanquito to create today’s Bichon Havanese. In the development of the Havanese, the Blanquito was much more dominant than the Poodle. The Bichon Havanese originated in the 19th century (1800-11899). It was continually bred in Cuba all through the 20th century (1900-1999) and was the preferred pet/dog of Cuban families.

In the 1960s many Cubans migrated to USA. Most Cuban refugees settled in Florida and some brought their pets (Havanese). A U.S. breeder, Mrs. Goodale saved the breed from extinction. She advertised in a Florida paper, and found two or three immigrant families who had brought their Havanese from Cuba with papers. From them, Mrs. Goodale got 6 Bichon Havanese with pedigrees: a female with 4 female pups, and a young unrelated male. Later she was able to get 5 more males from Costa Rica. As an experienced breeder, Mrs. Goodale began working with the 11 dogs. Her first lines appeared in 1974. The UKC recognized them in 1991. The AKC recognized them in 1996. The CKC (Canadian Kennel Club) recognized them in 2001.

Around 1980, several German breeders started finding odd-coated puppies in litters with regular Havanese. As these pups matured they did not grow full coats like their other littermates. They had feathering on the skirts, tail, legs, chest and ears—the rest of the body hair was close lying. They oddly enough grew up to have smooth coats. Breeders got together and found that this was happening in other litters of Havanese and was not a chance genetic mutation in one single litter, but something carried in a lot of Havanese as a recessive gene. These dogs were called smooth-coated Havanese, but have picked up the name Shavanese somewhere along the line. The short-coated Havanese are not showable or breed able, however they are perfectly healthy.

This is a very healthy long-lived breed, however, all long-lived breeds eventually have health problems. Some are prone PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy), poodle eye, juvenile heritable cataracts, Chondrodysplasia, patellar luxation (dislocated kneecaps), Legg-Calve Perthes Disease, cardiac, liver and kidney problems, unilateral and bilateral deafness, Sebaceous Adenitis (SA), seizures and dry skin.

For pets, the coat can be clipped short for easier care. If the coat is to be kept long it needs to be thoroughly brushed and combed at least twice a week. There is a lotion available to prevent the hair from splitting.

Corded coats require special care. Dogs are not born with corded coats. It is a chosen groomed hair style. You can cord the coat or you can brush the coat.

Without a human grooming the dogs the coats would be a matted mess.

A drop coat is also a human controlled style. Clip excess hair from between the pads of the feet. The feet themselves may be clipped to look round.

Show dogs need a great deal more grooming.

There is little to no shedding, so dead hair must be removed by brushing.

Check the eyes and ears regularly. If the ears are not kept clean they are prone to ear infections.

 The beauty of a well groomed Havanese is that he still looks tousled and carefree. If you accustom your dog to nail clipping from puppy age, they should accept the routine as an adult. This breed is good for allergy sufferers. They are a non-shedding, hypo-allergenic dog. However, the Shavanese (Havanese born with a short coat) which have coats more like the average dog and are comparable in looks to a Papillon, do shed. It is believed, but not yet 100% confirmed, that unlike the longhaired Havanese, the short haired Shavanese is not hypo-allergenic and therefore not a good choice for allergy sufferers.

This playful little dog has an average demand for exercise. This breed needs to be taken on a daily walk. While walking be sure to make the dog heel on the lead. It is an instinct for a dog to migrate daily and to have a leader, and in their mind the leader leads the way. This is very important to raising a well-rounded, balanced pet.

Havanese dogs are very trainable, smart and of a cooperative nature. They are not, however, known for being particularly easy to housetrain, and many owners opt to crate train their young Havanese pups to help in the potty training phase, which helps prevent accidents.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NAPR = North American Purebred Registry, Inc.
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Hungarian Vizla Dog breed

Hungarian Vizla

 KEY FACTS

The Vizsla is a medium-sized hunting dog. The strong body is slightly longer than it is tall. The slightly domed skull is lean and muscular and wide between the ears with a medial line going down the forehead. The muzzle tapers gradually from the stop to the nose and is the same length or shorter than the skull. The nose is flesh-coloured in contrast with the coat. The neck is strong with no dewlap. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The medium-sized eyes contrast with the coat colour. The long ears are silky thin, hanging down close to the cheeks with rounded tips. The tail is thick at the root. The front legs are straight with cat-like feet. The short, smooth coat is tight to the whole body.

Lifespan:  12 – 15 years

Height: 56- 66 cm (22 -26 inches)

Weight: 20 – 27 kg (45 -60 pounds)

Size: Medium

Energy: High

Colours: Russet Gold

Group: Gundog Group

The Hungarian Vizsla is not recommended for apartment life. It is moderately active indoors and does best with at least an average-sized garden.

The Vizsla is expressive, gentle and loving.

Reliable with children, loving to play for hours. Without extensive daily exercise these dogs may be too energetic and excitable for very young toddlers, but are excellent for energetic kids.

Able to adapt quickly to family life, and are generally good with other dogs. They are very athletic, and when lacking in exercise they may become destructive or neurotic.

Vizslas are depicted on etchings that date back to the 10th century.

They originate from Hungary bred by the Magyars, who used them as hunting dogs.

They are thought to have descended from several types of pointers along with the Transylvanian Hound and the Turkish Yellow Dog (now extinct). “Vizsla” means “pointer” in Hungarian.

The dogs worked as hunters, their superb noses and endless energy guided them to excel at catching upland game such as waterfowl and rabbit.

The breed almost became extinct after World War II. After the war, when the Russians took control of Hungary, it was feared that the breed would disappear from existence. In an attempt to save the breed, native Hungarians smuggled some of the dogs to America and Austria.

The Vizsla has two cousins, one with hard-wirehair called the Wirehaired Vizsla and the other a rare longhaired Vizsla. The longhaired can be born in both smooth and wirehair litters, although this is quite a rare occurrence. The longhaired Vizslas are not registered anywhere in the world, but some can be found in Europe.

Some of the Vizsla’s talents include retriever, pointer, game bird hunter, obedience competitions, agility and watchdog.

Prone to hip dysplasia.

This smooth, shorthaired coat is easy to keep in peak condition. Brush with a firm bristle brush, and dry shampoo occasionally. Bathe with mild soap only when necessary. The nails should be kept trimmed. These dogs are average shedders.

This is an energetic working dog with enormous stamina. It needs to be taken on daily, long, brisk walks or jogs. It makes a great rollerblading or bike riding companion.

In addition, it needs plenty of opportunity to run, preferably off the lead in a safe area. If these dogs are allowed to get bored, and are not walked or jogged daily, they can become destructive and start to display a wide array of behavioural problems.

Keen and trainable to a high degree, it needs daily mental stimulation. It needs a patient, calm, firm hand. If this breed does not see you as a strong authority figure it will become stubborn.

Socialize them well to people, places, noises, dogs and other animals.

It is very important to obedience train your Vizsla. Without enough exercise, they can be overly eager, prancing around you in sheer excitement.

This breed is highly trainable and very willing to please—if you can get them to understand exactly what it is you want of them. If you do not train this breed they may become difficult to handle and control. Vizslas tend to chew.

This breed is not for everyone. If you want a calm dog and are not willing to walk a couple of miles or jog at least one mile a day, do not choose a Vizsla.

Without proper exercise, they can easily become high-strung. They have many talents such as: tracking, retrieving, pointing, watchdog and competitive obedience.

The Vizsla is a hunting dog and may be good with cats they are raised with, but should not be trusted with animals such as hamsters, rabbits and guinea pigs etc.

Be sure to always be your dog’s pack leader to avoid any negative behaviours such as guarding furniture, food, toys and so on. Well-balanced Vizslas that receive enough exercise and have owners who are true pack leaders will not have these issues. These behaviours can be reversed once the owners start displaying leadership, discipline and provide enough exercise, both mental and physical.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Irish Red and White Setter dogs

Irish Red & White Setter

 KEY FACTS

The Irish Red and White Setter is strong and powerful, without lumber—athletic rather than racy. The head is broad in proportion to body, with a good stop.

Skull is domed without occipital protuberance as in Irish Red Setters; fairly square, clean muzzle. The eyes are hazel or dark brown, round, slight prominence and without haw. The ears are set level with the eyes and well back, lying close to head. The jaw is strong with a perfect regular scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.

The neck is moderately long, very muscular, but not too thick, slightly arched and free from throatiness. The shoulders are well laid back. Elbows free, turning neither in nor out. Strong, oval bone well-muscled, sinewy, pasterns slightly sloping.

The body is strong and muscular, deep chest and well sprung ribs. Back and quarters very muscular and powerful. Bone strong, well built up with muscle and sinew. The hindquarters are wide and powerful. Legs from hip to hock long and muscular; from hock to heel short and strong. Stifle well bent, hocks well let down turning neither in nor out.

The feet are close-knit, well feathered between toes.

The tail is strong at the root, tapering to fine point, with no appearance of ropiness, not reaching below hock. Well feathered, carried level with back or below in lively manner. The coat is finely textured with good feathering. Slight wave permissible but never curly.

Lifespan:  11 – 15 years

Height: 62- 66 cm (24 -26 inches)

Weight: 25 – 34 kg (50 -75 pounds)

Size: Large

Energy: High

Colours: Red and White

Group: Gun Group

The Irish Red and White Setter is not recommended for apartment life unless the owners are active daily joggers or bikers and plan on taking the dog along with them. This breed does best with a large enclosed garden.

Irish Red and White Setters are energetic, intelligent, affectionate, loving, high-spirited and full of energy. They have no guarding instincts, get along with other pets and are good with children.

This breed can be reckless and high-strung if it does not receive the proper amount of mental and physical exercise and may become destructive and hard to manage. Impulsive, with an independent spirit, they are sensitive to the tone of one’s voice and will not listen if they sense that they are stronger minded than their owner, however they will also not respond well to harsh discipline. Owners need to be calm, yet possess an air of natural authority, being firm, confident and consistent, giving the dogs clear rules they must follow and sticking to them. Meek or passive owners or owners who do not provide enough exercise will find them to be difficult to train. Given firm handling and plenty of exercise, these dogs can be a joy to own. Start firm training early in life as it is easier to prevent behaviour issues than it is to fix them once they start happening.

Do not let this dog jump on humans, even as a small puppy. Teach them to heel on a lead and let humans pass in and out gate and doorways before them.

Relatively easily to housebreak.

There are two types, field lines and show lines (bench). Field types are bred for hunting and field trial work and are generally somewhat smaller with shorter coats. The bench type is bred for conformation shows. Both types are energetic and need daily exercise, but field lines have a higher energy level and need even more exercise.

The dominancy level in this breed varies even within the same litter. If you are not the type of person who can display a natural air of calm, but firm authority, then be sure to choose a pup that is more submissive. The temperament of both show and field lines vary widely, depending upon how the owners treat the dog and how much and what type of exercise they provide. Irish Red and White Setters are extremely swift, with an excellent sense of smell and are hardy over any terrain and in any climate, working well even in wetlands. This breed is used for all types of hunting.

Original Irish Setters were parti-coloured, red and white. The solid red Irish Setters were rare. In about 1850 the red Irish Setter began to gain popularity. The parti-coloured setter started its slow decline. The Red and White Irish Setters became nearly extinct except for the few enthusiasts who kept the breed alive. In the 1920s an attempt was made at the revival of the breed and it is from here that present owners can trace their pedigrees.

Prone to von Willebrand’s disease and PPC (Posterior Polar Cataract), a relatively minor form of cataract that doesn’t normally lead to blindness. Also, Canine Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency (CLAD), which is an autoimmune disease.

Daily brushing and combing of the soft, flat, medium-length coat is all that is required to keep it in excellent condition. Keep it free from burrs and tangles, brushing extra when the coat is shedding. Bathe and dry shampoo only when necessary. This breed is an average shedder.

All setters need a daily long, brisk walk or jog or they will become restless and difficult to manage. Do not allow the dog to walk in front of the person holding the lead. The dog must be made to heel beside or behind the human, as in the dog’s mind, the leader goes first and that leader must be the human. In addition, they will also enjoy running free in the safety of an enclosed area.

Irish Red and White Setters are intelligent dogs and are fairly easy to train so long as you start early.

Irish Red and White Setters do not respond well to negative training or loud voices. Make sure you’re using plenty of positive reinforcement in your regime.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • IRWSA = Irish Red & White Setter Association Inc.
  • KC(UK) = Kennel Club (UK)
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Irish Wolfhound

Irish Wolfhound

 KEY FACTS

The Irish Wolfhound is a giant-sized dog, one of the tallest breeds in the world, reaching the size of a small pony. The head is long and the skull is not too broad. The muzzle is long and somewhat pointed. The small ears are carried back against the head when the dog is relaxed and partway pricked when the dog is excited. The neck is long, strong and well arched. The chest is wide and deep. The long tail hangs down and is slightly curved. The legs are long and strong. The feet are round, with well-arched toes. The wiry, shaggy coat is rough to the touch on the head, body and legs and longer over the eyes and under the jaw.

Lifespan:  6 – 8 years

Height: 71- 90 cm (28 -35 inches)

Weight: 40 – 69 kg (90 -150 pounds)

Size: Giant

Energy: Average

Colours: grey, brindle, red, black, pure white or fawn

Group: Hound Group

The Irish Wolfhound is not recommended for apartment life. It is relatively inactive indoors and will do best with at least a large garden. This is a giant breed that needs some space. It may not fit well in a small or compact car. It needs to be part of the family and would be very unhappy in a kennel. Being a sighthound, it will chase and so need a secure, enclosed area for exercise.

Irish Wolfhounds are sweet-tempered, patient, kind, thoughtful and very intelligent. Their excellent nature can be trusted with children. Willing and eager to please, they are unconditionally loyal to their owner and family.

They tend to greet everyone as a friend, so do not count on them being a watchdog, but may be a deterrent simply due to their size. This giant breed can be clumsy and are slow to mature in both body and mind, taking about two years before they are full grown. However, they grow rapidly and high-quality food is essential.

While it is important to take a growing pup for daily walks for their mental well-being, hard exercise should not be forced and may be too taxing for this dog’s body when it is young. Teach it not to pull on its leash before it gets too strong.

The Irish Wolfhound is relatively easy to train. He responds well to firm, but gentle, consistent, leadership. This approach with plenty of canine understanding will go a long way because this dog quickly grasps what you intend.

Make sure the young dog is given as much self-confidence as possible and that you are always consistent with it, so that it grows into an equable, confident dog. This calm dog gets along well with other dogs. This is also true with other animals.

The Irish Wolfhound’s name originates from is use as a wolf hunter, and not from its appearance. This is a very old breed with Roman records dating as far back as 391 AD. They were used in wars, and for guarding herds and property and for hunting Irish elk, deer, boar and wolves.

They were held in such high esteem that battles were fought over them. Irish Wolfhounds were often given as royal presents. Boar and wolf became extinct in Ireland and as a result the Irish Wolfhound declined in population.

A British army officer by the name of Captain George Graham bred them in the second half of the 19th century. The breed was restored by the introduction of Great Dane and Deerhound blood. In 1902 a hound was first presented to the Irish Guards as a mascot.

Prone to cardiomyopathy, bone cancer, bloat, PRA, Von Willebrand’s, and hip dysplasia.

The rough, medium-length coat needs regular and thorough grooming with a brush and comb. This with keep the coat in good condition. About once or twice a year pluck the coat to remove excess dead hair. This breed is an average shedder.

These giant dogs need lots of space to run, but do not need any more exercise than smaller breeds. They need a daily walk where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the human holding the lead. Never in front. Like many other giant breeds it is important to remember that too much forced, vigorous exercise is not good for a young dog’s growth and development, so watch your puppy for any signs, but they still instinctually need a daily walk.

Irish Wolfhounds are intelligent and trainable if you’re consistent and use positive reinforcement techniques such as food rewards and praise. They’re generally easy to housetrain, and a crate can help, although it shouldn’t be overused.

  • ACA = American Canine Association Inc.
  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club
Jack Russell Terrier Dogs

Jack Russell Terrier

 KEY FACTS

The Jack Russell is a sturdy, tough terrier, very much on its toes all the time. The body length must be in proportion to the height, and it should present a compact, balanced image, always being in solid, hard condition. The head should be well balanced and in proportion to the body. The skull should be flat, of moderate width at the ears, narrowing to the eyes. The stop, which is the transition area from back skull to muzzle, should be defined, but not over-pronounced.

The length of the muzzle from the nose to the stop should be slightly shorter than the distance from the stop to the occiput. The nose should be black.

The jaw should be powerful and well boned with strongly muscled cheeks.

Eyes should be almond shaped, dark in colour and full of life and intelligence.

The small V-shaped, button ears are carried forward, close to the head and are of moderate thickness.

It has strong teeth, with the upper ones slightly overlapping the lower. Two bites are acceptable; level and scissor, with scissor being preferred.

The neck is clean and muscular, of good length, gradually widening at the shoulders.

The shoulders should be sloping and well laid back, fine at points and clearly cut at the withers.

Forelegs should be strong and straight boned with joints in correct alignment. Elbows hang perpendicular to the body and work free of the sides.

The chest should be shallow, narrow and the front legs not too widely apart, giving an athletic, rather than heavily chested appearance. As a guide only, the chest should be small enough to be easily spanned behind the shoulders, by average sized hands, when the terrier is in a fit, working condition.

The back should be strong, straight and, in comparison to the height of the terrier, give a balanced image. The loin should be slightly arched.

The hindquarters should be strong and muscular, well put together with good angulation and bend of stifle, giving plenty of drive and propulsion. Looking from behind, the hocks must be straight. The feet are round, hard padded, wide, of cat-like appearance, neither turning in nor out. The tail should be set rather high, carried gaily and in proportion to body length, usually about four inches long (when docked), providing a good hand-hold.

The Jack’s coat is smooth, without being so sparse as not to provide a certain amount of protection from the elements and undergrowth. Rough or broken coated, without being woolly. A broken coat means the dog has a combination of both the smooth and rough coat with patches of longer hair mixed in with the short coat.

Gait: movement should be free, lively, well-coordinated with straight action in front and behind. Old scars or injuries, the result of work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a terrier’s chance in the show ring unless they interfere with its movement or with its utility for work or stud. An Irish-type called Jack Russell Shortys has shorter legs than the English-type.

Lifespan:  6 – 8 years

Height: 71- 90 cm (28 -35 inches)

Weight: 40 – 69 kg (90 -150 pounds)

Size: Giant

Energy: Average

Colours: grey, brindle, red, black, pure white or fawn

Group: Hound Group

The Jack Russell Terrier will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. It is very active indoors and will do best with at least a big garden.

The Jack Russell Terrier is a cheerful, merry, devoted and loving dog. It is spirited and obedient, yet absolutely fearless. Careful and amusing, he enjoys games and playing with toys. Stable Jacks are friendly and generally kind to children. Children should be taught not to tease or hit the dog.

They are intelligent, and if you let them take an inch, they can become wilful and determined to take a mile. It is paramount that you are this dog’s pack leader. He needs to be given rules to follow, and limitations as to what he is and is not allowed to do.

Do not let this little dog fall into Small Dog Syndrome, where he believes he is pack leader to all humans. This is where varying degrees of behavioural problems will arise, including, but not limited to guarding, snapping, separation anxiety, and obsessive barking.

It has strong hunting instincts (stronger than your average terrier) and should not be trusted with other small animals. This hunting dog likes to chase, explore, bark and dig. Only let it off lead if it is well trained or in a safe area. Will get restless and destructive if it does not receive enough exercise and activities to occupy its keen mind. Jack Russell’s climb, which means they can climb over a fence; they also jump. A Jack that stands 12 inches high can easily jump five feet. JRTs are not the breed for an inexperienced dog owner. The owner needs to be as strong-willed as the dog is, or this little guy will take over. With the right owner the Jack can really excel, but is not recommended for those who do not understand what it means to be a dog’s true pack leader.

Jacks that are mentally stable, with all of their canine instincts met, will not display these negative behaviours. They are not traits of the Jack Russell, but rather human brought-on behaviours, which are a result of inefficient leadership, along with a lack of mental and physical stimulation. They will thrive with a job to do. The Jack Russell Terrier must present a lively, active and alert appearance. It should impress with its fearless and happy disposition. It should be remembered that the Jack Russell is a working terrier and should retain these instincts. Nervousness, cowardice or over-aggressiveness should be discouraged and it should always appear confident.

Make sure the young dog is given as much self-confidence as possible and that you are always consistent with it, so that it grows into an equable, confident dog. This calm dog gets along well with other dogs. This is also true with other animals.

The breed was named after a clergyman named Rev. John Russell. It was used as a small game hunting dog particularly for red fox, digging the quarry out of its den in the mid-1800s. On English hunts, the dogs needed to be long-legged enough to keep up with the hounds. Breeders had emphasized its working ability, so the standard was very broad, allowing a wide range of accepted body types. Some of the Jack Russell’s talents include: hunting, tracking, agility and performing tricks. A Jack Russell Terrier named Moose played Eddie Crane on the television sitcom Frasier.

Some are prone to dislocation of the kneecaps, inherited eye diseases, deafness and Legg Perthes—a disease of the hip joints of small dog breeds. Prone to mast cell tumours.

All coat types are easy to groom. Comb and brush regularly with a firm bristle brush, and bathe only when necessary. To show, owners must strip the coat. Like the rough coat, the broken coated Jack needs to be stripped out also. This breed is an average shedder.

The Jack Russell Terrier is a pleasant companion when it is sufficiently exercised; however if it does not get enough, it may become a nuisance. It needs to be taken on a long, daily, brisk walk. In addition, he will be in his glory with space to run, hunt and play. If the Jack is left alone during the day, be it in an apartment or a house, it should be well exercised before the human leaves for work by taking it on a long pack walk or jog, and then taken out again when returning home.

They are highly trainable and able to perform impressive tricks. They have been used on TV and in the movies. However, if you do not show authority toward the dog, it can be difficult to train. This breed needs a firm, experienced trainer. Jacks that have been allowed to take over can be aggressive with other dogs. Some have killed or been killed in dog fights. Be sure to socialize the Jack.

  • ACR = American Canine Registry
  • AKC = American Kennel Club
  • ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
  • CET = Club Español de Terriers (Spanish Terrier Club)
  • CKC = Continental Kennel Club
  • IKC = Irish Kennel Club
  • FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale
  • KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
  • NKC = National Kennel Club
  • NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
  • UKC = United Kennel Club